Definitions • Culture: A learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, norms, and social practices, which affects the behaviors of a relatively large group of people. • What does it include (key aspects)? • What does it exclude?
Shared interpretations • Beliefs, values, norms (//rules), social practices • Behaviors (versus norms?) • Relatively large groups of people
Aspects of Culture • Values, beliefs, attitudes • Rules, norms, taboos, mores • World view • Social organization • Encoding/decoding processes (verbal/nonverbal)
Aspects of culture • Verbal processes • Thought patterns • Inductive • Deductive • Cyclical • Intuitive • Verbal language • Nonverbal processes • “Contact” behaviors • “Display rules” (showing emotion) • Time • Space
Characteristics of Culture • Learned (not innate) • Transmitted (enculturation, diffusion) • Symbolic (signs, codes, etc.) • Dynamic (invention, diffusion, calamity) • Interrelated • Ethnocentric
An Iceberg Model of Culture http://www.swyaa.org/handbook/Index/image7.jpg
Related terms • Nation • Race ≠ Ethnicity (packet p. 44) • Sex ≠ Gender • Subculture, co-culture • Lifestyle, social group • What are +/- of various terms? • Is race = culture? Are sex groups cultures? How about age cohorts? • What makes a group a “culture”?
FOOD: FUN: Open happiness: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bg_zxsxyKyM FUNERAL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOAq1A4Uc1A http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q4FndJjc9-w http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vQimYa6qQaE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2qvrQb0-0oI&feature=fvwrel Cultural universals: Holidays & festivals
Forces that Shape Culture • History • Ecology • Technology • Biology • Institutional Networks • Interpersonal Communication Patterns How might these apply to your own culture?
(Pack, p. 40) IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
Individual freedom/self-reliance/privacy Equality of opportunity-competition Material wealth (consumerism)/hard work/achievement/action Future/change/technology/progress Informality Goodness of humanity Time Directness/Assertiveness American Values
God helps those Who help themselves American Proverbs A penny saved is a penny earned Idle hands are the devil’s workshop Cleanliness is next to godliness Early to bed, early to rise… makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise Look out for Number One! Time is money Every problem has a solution When the going gets tough… the tough get going
Based on values, notions of logic Talk/Communication as: A solution A vehicle of meaning (essentially pragmatic), e.g., “Grice’s maxims” A mirror of reality (close connection) Verbal Communication
Preferred talk topics: (does this mean Americans are stupid? Talk topics not desired Verbal Communication
Form/structure of everyday talk • X Long speech turns • X much “ritual” communication • X “argument” • X too much/little “self-disclosure • Channels preferred • X too skillful in use of words! • X too much talk of politics • Verbal > NV (low context)
General characteristics Less formal Less “differentiated” in code (more “universal” than “particular”)—that is, status differences less important Less code switching More instrumental(task focused) than expressive More “outcome” than “process” More pragmatic than philosophical More “open” (self-disclosure)…and yet…
Protestant Heritage hard work Immigration; England, Europe, “Melting Pot” pragmatism Frontier heritage the rugged individual The heritage of business entrepreneurs as heroes Influences on Americanvalues
A Structuration View of Culture STRUCTURE Communication
“Intercultural communication occurs when large and important cultural differences create dissimilar interpretations and expectations about how to communicate competently” (Lustig & Koester, 2010, pp. 52-53) Intercultural Communication
Lustig & Koester, pp. 46-52, quote on p. 51 Degrees of Cultural Difference
For Wednesday • Read Chapter 3 • Fill out the Study Sheet Ch. 3 • Fill out page 45 in the packet (Cultural Metaphors) – we’ll discuss this first, then submit • Think about how you would apply BASIC to your own communication habits (page 46). • DIE (only due on Thursday)
http://culturalcomparisons.wordpress.com/ Team project