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Pope John XXIII

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  1. Pope John XXIII A Significant Person in the Christian tradition (1881-1963) For Students

  2. Life of Pope John XXIII in a nutshell… • 1881, 25 Nov – born AngeloGiuseppe Roncalli • Papal Predecessor – Pius XII • 1958 – elected John XXIII; 262nd Pope of Roman Catholic Church; aged 76; pontificate lasts 5 years • 1963, June 3 –dies aged 81 • Papal Successor – Paul VI • 2000, Sept 3 – declared ‘Blessed’ by Pope John Paul II (see sermon in Notes) i i

  3. John XXIII – Coats of Arms • Coat of arms for Angelo Roncalli as Patriarch of Venice (1953-1958). Motto of ‘Obedientia et Pax’ (Obedience and Peace) • Papal coat of arms for Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) NB Venetian lion derived from St Mark’s Gospel in both coats of arms i i

  4. Significant dates in the life of Pope John XXIII (1) 1881, 25 Nov – born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, in Sotto il Monte, Italy, the 4th in a family of 13 children 1896 – admitted to secular Franciscan Order by spiritual director in Bergamo seminary 1901-1905 – student at Pontifical Roman Seminary; all early appointments by Pius XII 1904, 10 Aug – ordained a priest in Rome 1905 – Bishop of Bergamo appoints Roncalli as his secretary 1914-1919 – WWI – Roncalli drafted into Royal Italian Army as a sergeant; he serves in medical core as chaplain. Opens a ‘Student House’ after War to help their spiritual needs 1921 – appointed by new Pope Benedict XV as Italian president of Society for the Propagation of the Faith i i Fr. Angelo Roncalli (centre) in seminary or as Bishop’s secretary, 1905-1909??

  5. Significant dates - Pope John XXIII (2) • 1925 – appointed by Pope Pius XI as Apostolic Visitor to Bulgaria; then consecrated as titular bishop of Areopolis. Chooses as his episcopal motto ‘Obedientia et Pax’ (Obedience & Peace), which became his lifelong motto • 1935 – appointed Apostolic Delegate to Turkey and Greece. Helped Jewish underground to save thousands of refugees in Europe – afterwards considered a Righteous Gentile • 1944 – Pope Pius XII named him Apostolic Nuncio to Paris, France i i DYK - After he was elected, John XXIII spent much time at night visiting prisoners and the poor

  6. Significant dates - Pope John XXIII (3) • 1944-1953 – worked on UN Declaration of Human Rights whilst in Paris, France • 1953 – named Patriarch of Venice and therefore raised to rank of Cardinal • 1958, 28 Oct – Papal conclave elects him as Pope John XXIII. Had arrived at Vatican with a return ticket to Venice. Because of long pontificate of Pope Pius XII, cardinals choose older man as ‘stop gap’ pope. He is 77 years old at election. Cardinal Montini (future Paul VI) is expected to be elected, but he was not yet a cardinal. Is last to insist on full 5 hr papal ceremony i i

  7. Significant dates - Pope John XXIII (4) • 1960, Dec 2 – meets Archbishop of Canterbury, Most Rev Geoffrey Francis Fisher • 1961 – issues Mater et Magistra • 1962, Jan 3 – excommunicates Fidel Castro, being a Catholic linked to a communist government • 1962, Sept 23 – John XXIII first diagnosed with stomach cancer (a fact kept from the public for some 8 years) • 1962-1965 – less than 90 years after Vatican I, he convenes the ecumenical Vatican II Council • 1963 – issues Pacem in Terris • 1963, April – gives hint of his illness when he says: “That which happens to all men [sic] perhaps will happen soon to the Pope who speaks to you today” • 1963, May 11 – awarded Balzan Prize for his engagement for peace. This was his last public appearance i i

  8. Significant dates in the life of Pope John XXIII (5) • 1963, May 25 – suffers another haemorrhage, requires blood transfusions, developed peritonitis (inflammation of sac that lines walls of abdominal cavity) • 1963, June 3 – dies 7.49 pm, aged 81 • 1963, June 6 – is buried, ending a papal reign of 4 years, 7 months, 6 days. He is the last pope to insist on a full papal funeral • 1963, Dec 6 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson awards him the posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest U.S. civilian award • 2000, Sept 3 – John XXIII is declared ‘Blessed’ by Pope John Paul II (Principal source: Wikipedia website) i i

  9. John XXIII’s [immediate, life-focused] contribution to Christianity (1) • explain the [immediate] contribution to the development and expression of Christianity of John XXIII • Explain = relates cause and effect, the relationship between aspects of something, the why and how behind it DID YOU KNOW? Pope John XXIII was TIME magazine’s ‘Man of the Year’ in their Jan 4, 1965 issue. He had died in June 1963.

  10. John XXIII’s contribution to Christianity? (2) • Summoned Second Vatican Council (1962-1965), enacted major revision of the Code of Canon Law; transformed the structures of the Roman Catholic Church • Vatican II charged with the updating (aggiornamento) of the Church and seeking unity between Christians in the world (Hinnells, p.192) • Through his personality and teaching, and his initiatives with world leaders, he gave the papacy a new vision and set the Church towards a new mission in the world(both quotes from: P. Hebblethwaite, 2000, John XXIII, back cover)

  11. John XXIII’s contribution to Christianity? (3) • He changed the nature of modern Church Councils. He did not call a council to condemn errors or declare new infallible beliefs, as with previous councils – his council was one of mercy and pastoral care, to express faith in a new language, and be ecumenical in nature (Hebblethwaite in McBrien, p.709) • Pastoral emphasis of his pontificate is emphasised by his visits to the Regina Coeli prison; he talked with traditional enemies like the Communists; he made grace accessible to ordinary people; he was open to the Holy Spirit; he was atune to ‘the signs of the times’ [cf. Gaudium et spes, n.1] (Ibid, p.709; cf 14 Works of Mercy, Slide 28 below)

  12. John XXIII’s contribution to Christianity? (4) • He communicated using effective images. We are born not to be ‘museum keepers, but to cultivate a flourishing garden of life’. He referred to Vatican II as ‘the new Pentecost’. The prayer for the Council was: ‘Renew thy wonders in this day, as by a New Pentecost’ (Hebblethwaite in McBrien, p.709) • Transformation of the Church’s nature – the Council would involve ‘a change in mentalities, ways of thinking and prejudices’; its language would ‘shed light on and remove misunderstandings, and it should dissipate error by the force of truth’ (Ibid, p.709)

  13. John XXIII’s contribution to Christianity? (5) • His life & mission was based on a personal spirituality of the Crucified and Risen Christ. The Council represented ‘a way of self-renewal through an encounter with the Risen Jesus…whose light illumines the whole Church for the salvation, joy and glory of all peoples’ (Hebblethwaite in McBrien, p.710) • His key distinction between the Church ad intra and the Church ad extra – that is: internal questions (worship, ecumenism, etc) and external questions (war, peace, birth control, hunger, poverty, etc) (Ibid, p.710)

  14. John XXIII’s contribution to Christianity? (6) • His scholarly contribution was to edit the writings of St Charles Borromeo (in 39 volumes). This took a lifetime with volumes appearing in 1936, 1937, 1938, 1946 and 1957 (Hebblethwaite, p.30). He had academic specialisation in history, patrology, apologetics, and was a much sought after preacher/spiritual adviser (Vatican website, biography) • As John XXIII said at the opening of the Council (11 Oct 1962) ‘History is the teacher of life’ • Among his first actions upon election as Pope was the creation of 23 new cardinals in Dec 1958; by 1962 he had increased the number of new cardinals to 87.

  15. John XXIII’s contribution to Christianity? (7) • Justice, peace and politics – In 1909, Roncalli backs Bishop Tedeschi in Church support of a strike by 800 textile workers in a factory just outside Bergamo (Hebblethwaite, p.34) • ‘The priest who lives in the light of the teachings of the Gospel cannot pass by on the other side of the road… Christ’s preference goes to the disinherited, the weak and the oppressed’ (Roncalli’s article, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.34)

  16. John XXIII’s contribution to Christianity? (8) • Ecumenism – Cardinal Roncalli’s ongoing meetings with representatives of the Ecumenical Patriarch (e.g. 1938 after election of Pius XII) paved the way for the ‘kiss of peace’ between Patriarch Athenagoras and Paul VI, in Jerusalem, in January 1964 (Hebblethwaite, p.78) • 1960, Dec 2 – meets Archbishop of Canterbury, Most Rev. Geoffrey Francis Fisher • 1962 – fewer than 90 yrs after Vatican I, he convenes the ecumenical council Vatican II – it reshapes liturgy, ecumenism, biblical scholarship, and the approach of the Church to the world

  17. John XXIII’s contribution to Christianity? (9) • Called Church to be Prophetic within (not apart from) the Modern World – John XXIII understood that the world was changing and that the Church needed to respond to the stirrings of the Holy Spirit by working through ‘the signs of the times’. In doing so, he was committed to Christian unity, social justice, human rights, and the cultivation of world peace (ND Vision site) • Influence on the Church Documents, especially: through his opening address at Vatican II; the Declaration on Religious Freedom; and the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (probably the most important of the Vatican II documents)(Medal of Freedom website)

  18. The [long term] impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (1) • analyse the impact of John XXIII on Christianity • Analyse = identify components and the relationship between components; draw out and relate implications • Looks at the relationship between John XXIII and Christianity, including his [long term?] impact on Christianity

  19. The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (2a) • SPIRITUALITY – HIS ‘RULES OF LIFE’Daily discipline – at least 15 mins mental prayer per day; read whole chapter of The Imitation of Christ; examine conscience; prepared meditation for next day; visit to Blessed Sacrament; 5 Hail Marys + Our Fathers repeated between 6-9pm in honour of 5 wounds of Jesus on the CrossWeekly – Confession & Communion; Daily Mass but weekly Communion (Jansenist legacy); fasted Fridays and Saturdays, performing penanceMonthly – meeting with his spiritual director; set aside one day for more profound recollection; person for advertisement of defects; chose a special patron saint for each month (Hebblethwaite, p.11)

  20. The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (2b) • SPIRITUALITY – HIS ‘RULES OF LIFE’ [continued] Annually – would make a yearly retreat in a seminary, choosing Carnivale time in order to be praying harder while others feasted and revelled; Annual General Confession(Hebblethwaite, p.11) • ‘Roncalli was always good at remembering anniversaries and feastdays, and performing small thoughtful kindnesses. Life, as the spiritual writers said, is made up of little things’ (Ibid, p.11)

  21. The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (3) • SPIRITUAL AUTOBIOGRAPHY Wrote Journal of a Soul (named by others) based on model of St Therese of Lisieux’s Story of a Soul. John described it as ‘sixty years spent with a pen’. He began it in 1895, aged 14, until his death in 1963. (Hebblethwaite, p.ix) • LIFE CENTRED ON PRAYERHis light went on at 4 am, sometimes 3 am. ‘I always get up at four in the morning; it’s my time…one prays so well at first light, when everything is silent’ (Ibid, p.ix) • SPIRITUAL MOTTOS‘Obedience and Peace’ (Patriarchate of Venice); ‘Through Mary to Jesus’ (over the door of his chapel in Istanbul)

  22. The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (4) • SPIRITUAL INSPIRATIONSThomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ; also inspired by Sts Peter & Paul, St Joseph, and strong spirituality based on St Charles Borromeo and St Francis de Sales; plus devotion to Sacred Heart. Also spirituality of St Bernard of Clairvaux and 14 Works of Mercy. (Ibid, pp.x, 7-8, 11, 13; refer to Slides 27 & 28). • OPENNESS TO THE POORJohn came from a poor childhood; his mother would always welcome & sit down a stranger at one of their meals. The Roncallis knew their Bible: ‘Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unawares’ (Heb 13:2) (Ibid, p.3)

  23. The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (5) • THE WILL OF GOD AS CENTRAL‘Let your will be mine, and let my will ever respond to yours, in perfect harmony. Let me desire what you desire and hate what you hate, and let me desire and hate nothing but what you desire and hate’(Journal, p.11, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.12) • SPIRITUALITY OF PEACE‘You are the true peace of the heart, you are its only resting place…In this peace, in this very peace which is yourself the one, supreme, eternal God, I will sleep and rest’(Journal, p.11, based on Imitation of Christ, Bk 3, Ch 15, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.12) • AT TIMES – CERTAIN DISDAIN OF WORLD‘O the world is so ugly, filthy and loathsome! In my year of military service I have learned all about it. The army is a running fountain of pollution, enough to submerge whole cities. Who can hope to escape from this flood of slime, unless God comes to his aid’(Journal, pp.92-93, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.18)

  24. The impact of John XXIII on Christianity? (6) • IMPACT OF WORKER-PRIESTSMany priests from prison camps or resistance movements looking for a new form of ministry immersed in lives of normal people; e.g. around 1947(Hebblethwaite, p.105) • THE FOUR THINGS THAT BRING GREAT INWARD PEACE‘Choose always to have less rather than more.Seek always the lowest place and to be beneath everyone.Seek always and pray that the will of God may be wholly fulfilled in you.Behold, such a man [sic] enters within the borders of peace and rest’(Imitation of Christ, Bk III, Ch 23, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.115)

  25. Spirituality of St Bernard of Clairvaux(1090-1153 : contemporary of Hildegard) • Peace within the cell: fierce warfare without,Hear all; believe a few; honour all.Do not believe everything you hear;Do not judge everything you see:Do not do everything you can;Do not give everything you have;Do not say everything you know.Pray, read, withdraw, be silent,be at peace.(Journal , p.40, cited in Hebblethwaite, pp.7-8)

  26. Spirituality based on 14 works of mercyBased on Mt 25:34-40; Isa 58:6-10 • 7 Corporal works of mercy • Feed the hungry • Give drink to the thirsty • Clothe the naked • Visit the imprisoned • Shelter the homeless • Visit the sick • Bury the dead • 7 Spiritual works of mercy • Admonish the sinner • Instruct the ignorant • Counsel the doubtful • Comfort the sorrowful • Bear wrongs patiently • Forgive all injuries • Pray for the living and the dead(Journal , 26 Dec 1958, cited in Hebblethwaite, p.154; cf. McBrien, pp.854-55)

  27. Some key passages from the writings of John XXIII (1) • ‘We are not on earth to guard a museum but to cultivate a flourishing garden of life’(Source: Lettere, p.481; cited in: Hebblethwaite, p.131; for iconsee Robert Lenz website atwww.bridgebuildingicons.com )

  28. Some key passages from the writings of John XXIII (2) • ‘What counts most in this life is blessed Jesus Christ, his holy Church, his Gospel, truth and goodness’(University of Notre Dame, ND Vision website) • ‘You could not come to me, so I came to you’(Words to Prisoners whom he visited after becoming Pope)

  29. Key passages - John XXIII (3) • ‘The faithful saw in him a reflection of the goodness of God, and called him ‘the good pope’’ (Vatican site) • ‘Anybody can be Pope; the proof of this is that I have become one’ • ‘Born poor, but of honoured and humble people, I am proud to die poor’ • ‘Consult not your fears but your hopes and your dreams… Concern yourself not with what you tried and failed at, but what it is still possible for you to do’ • ‘I have looked into your eyes with my eyes. I have drawn near to your heart’ John XXIII signing Pacem in Terris in 1963; NB thin & sick due to cancer

  30. Key passages - John XXIII (4) • ‘It often happens that I wake up at night and begin to worry about a serious problem and decide I must tell the Pope about it. Then I wake up completely and remember that I am the Pope’ • ‘Italians come to ruin most generally in three ways – women, gambling and farming. My family chose the slowest and most boring of the three’ • ‘See everything, overlook a great deal, correct a little, show compassion in all things’

  31. John XXIII - ‘Did you know?’ (1) ‘There was no Pope John XX due to confusion among the papal historians and following a number of antipopes’ (NB Do not confuse the modern John XXIII (1881-1963) with John XXIII, antipope from 1410-1415)

  32. John XXIII - ‘Did you know?’ (2) John XXIII began Vatican II in 1962 – Paul VI finished Vatican II in 1965

  33. John XXIII - ‘Did you know?’ (3) • After he was elected pope, aged 76, John XXIII immediately made Giovanni Montini a cardinal (future Paul VI) • He then went to the Holy Office (in charge of guarding against heresy) and looked up his own file. A note was attached: ‘suspected of Modernism’. This was one reason why his career had been ruined or delayed thirty years beforehand. (mcs.drexel site)

  34. John XXIII - ‘Did you know?’ (4) The Pope as Angelo Roncalli entered salvation history in 1881. Also born in that same year were: Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Jesuit paleontologist, mystic Alcide De Gaspen, future leader of the Christian democrats Augustin Bea, became founder-president of Secretariat for Christian Unity (all from Hebblethwaite, p.xi)

  35. John XXIII - ‘Did you know?’ (5) • John XXIII composed the equivalent of his ‘last will and testament’ with the encyclical Pacem in Terris on universal peace; this was his final mandate for the Council which he had begun (Hebblethwaite in McBrien, p.710) • Realising that he would soon die, he said to a friend: ‘At least I have launched this big ship [the Council] – others will have to bring it into port’ (Ibid, p.710)

  36. Summary of Major Documents – John XXIII • Mater et Magistra: Mother and Teacher (1961) • Identifies the widening gap between the rich and poor nations as a global concern of justice • Raises concerns about the arms race • Calls upon Christians to work for a more just world • Pacem in Terris: Peace on Earth (1963) • Focus on human rights as the basis for peace; • Calls for disarmament • Stating the need for a world-wide institution to promote and safeguard the universal common good (Source: http://sao.clriq.org.au/cst/cst_intro.html)

  37. Bibliography & References (1)NB All websites retrieved Nov 2006 • Hebblethwaite, Peter. (2000). John XXIII, Pope of the century. Revised Margaret Hebblethwaite; London: Continuum. • Hinnells, John R. (ed.). (1991). Who’s Who of Religions. London: Penguin. ‘John XXIII’, p.192. • Mc Bride, Alfred. (1996). A Retreat with Pope John XXIII: Opening Windows to Wisdom. St. Anthony Messenger Press. • McBrien, Richard P. (Gen. Ed.). (1995). The HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism. New York: HarperCollinsPublishers. ‘John XXIII’ by Peter Hebblethwaite, pp.709-710. NB: Probably the best single source brief summary of John XXIII’s life and contributions to the Council and the Church in general. • Morrissey, J., Mudge, P., Taylor, A., et al. (2005). Living Religion, 3rd Edition. Melbourne: Pearson Longman,pp.306-310. • Pope John Paul XXIII (28 Oct 1958 – 3 June, 1963) – Online Papal document for his papacy www.papalencyclicals.net/John23/index.htm • Summary of Main Encyclicals and Documents – Social Justice http://sao.clriq.org.au/cst/cst_intro.html

  38. Bibliography & References (3)NB All websites retrieved Nov 2006 • Almost a Saint: Pope John XXIII; St Anthony Messenger www.americancatholic.org/Messenger/Nov1996/feature1.asp • Homily by John Paul II, Beatification of John XXIII – took place 3 September 2000 www.va/news_services/liturgy/saints/ns_lit_doc_200000903_john-xxiii_en.html • Overview of Church’s thinking on Human Rights (search site under Australian Catholic Bishops’ Conference, author Sandi Cornish) • Pope John XXIII – a brief biography, Notre Dame Vision www.nd.edu/~ndvi/pages/inspiration/models/019.html • Pope John XXIII – Illuminating Lives www.mcs.drexel.edu/~gbrandal/Illum_html/JohnXXIII.html • Pope John XXIII – Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_John_XXIII