Chapter 10 – Renaissance and Discovery Part II September 17, 2009
The story….. • The mid 1400’s saw both chaos, and the flowering of new thoughts and ideas. • Europe was dealing with 3 major crisis; • Demographic • Black Death and Population Loss. Population is slowly recovering • Political • New and more able monarchs were imposing new political order • Religious issues are yet to be solved
The Renaissance • 1375-1527 • Not just a single event, but a culmination of 150 years of changing thought • Renaissance = French for rebirth • A time of transition from medieval to modern times.
Humanism • Humanism was a birth of more modern thought • Un-Christian • Stressed dignity of humankind, individualism, secular values • Not a philosophy or value system • It was an educational program built on rhetoric and scholarship
Humanism • Humanists advocated the studia humanitatis • Liberal arts • Grammar • Rhetoric • Poetry • History • Politics • Moral philosophy
Humanism • The first humanists were orators and poets • Their writings were inspired by newly discovered work of the ancients • Were not bound by tradition • When not teaching, often worked as speechwriters or diplomats
Humanism • Some important names to remember • (hint…you might want to put these one one of your cards you bought for the class…..right Lara?) • Petrarch: Father of Humamism • Dante: The Decameron, Dante’s Inferno • Boccaccio
Humanism • Educational Reforms • Humanists were always on the outlook for new sources of ancient information • Their goal was not only to have knowledge of good, but to inspire in others the desire to learn. • Humanists were especially drawn to the teaching of Plato, which had a good view of human nature.
Humanism • Civic Humanism • Humanists believed that education should stress: • Individual virtue • Public service
Humanism • Art • Renaissance art was different from medieval art • Medieval Art: Abstract and formulaic. Usually religious in nature • Renaissance Art: Embraced the natural world, stressed symmetry and order, used human emotion
Humanism • Art • Art was also helped by the discovery of new techniques • Shading (Chiaroscruo) • New Oil Paints • Linear perspective These all allowed for a more 3 dimensional representation of life
Humanism • Some famous renaissance artists: • Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa) • Raphael • Michelangelo (Sistine Chapel)
Humanism Slavery • Slavery flourished in Italy • Was often looked at as a merciful act to save the life of a prisoner • Demand soared after the Black Death • In many cases, slaves were accepted into an household as family members, bore children to the master and were treated well.