Renaissance. The Renaissance. OBJECTIVES. 3. Define Renaissance Describe factors that led to the Renaissance Identify the reasons the Renaissance began in Italy Explain the role of patrons in Renaissance society. Renaissance. Fr. word meaning REBIRTH Rebirth of what?
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Renaissance The Renaissance
OBJECTIVES 3 Define Renaissance Describe factors that led to the Renaissance Identify the reasons the Renaissance began in Italy Explain the role of patrons in Renaissance society
Renaissance • Fr. word meaning REBIRTH • Rebirth of what? • classical culture: Greece & Rome • What was that? • Focus on human life, learning, reason • 1st occurred in Northern Italy about the 15th c. • WHY?
The Crusades - Review • What were the effects of the Crusades? • Religious Intolerance • Increased Trade • Destruction of Byzantine Empire • Decline in Pope’s power • Decline in Feudal system • Revival of Greek Ideas
Black Death • Lots of ppl died • Plague killed kings, peasants, townspeople, church officials everyone died • This causes 2 things – • Decline in the feudal system – and a rise of towns • A focus on human life & living for the moment
Causes of the Renaissance • Focus on human life & the present • Focus on the individual (Black Death) • Increased trade • Lead to an increase in money, growth of towns (Crusades) • Fall of Byzantine Empire • Spread Greek scholars throughout Europe (Crusades) • Revival in Greek thinking & art (Crusades)
Why Italy? • Cities (about 100,000 people) • Florence • Genoa • Venice • Rome • Cities of Italy survived the MA - grown into prosperous trade centers. • Cities allowed people to specialize in 1 pursuit – especially art • Allowed merchants in Northern Italy to become very wealthy
Why Italy? • Why Italy? WHY ITALY? • It’s the rebirth of ROMAN ideas. So why Italy? • Rome is in Italy, there were ruins & reminders of the culture all around
Why Italy? • Italy home to the ppl most likely to be patrons • Patron: sponsor of the arts (they gave lots of money to artists) • Who did Italy have that had lots of money? • Merchants • Pope
Art and Patronage • Italians willing to spend a lot of $$ on art. • Art communicated soc., pol., & spiritual values. • Italian banking & international trade interests had the money. • Public art in Florence was organized & supported by merchants. Therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status!
Medici • Medici family controlled banking throughout all Europe • The richest individuals in all Europe • Medicis - not the rulers of Florence. • Used wealth & influence to control gov’t. behind the scenes.
Popes • Popes used church $$$ to rebuild Rome • Commissioned many religious works • Sistine Chapel • School of Athens
Filippo Brunelleschi • Built cathedral dome. • Used unique architectural concepts. • Studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome. • Used ribs for support.
Other Famous Domes Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
Lorenzo Ghiberti • Goldsmith in Florence • His great work, the Doors to the Baptistery of Florence • considered 1st great work of Renaissance • “Gates of Paradise” - Michelagelo
BELL WORK • In your Reading Packet- • Boys: Read about the Courtly Woman. • List 5 characteristics of the courtly woman • Girls: Read about the Courtly Man • List 5 characteristics of the courtly man
OBJECTIVES • Explain the 3 main Renaissance values • Apply them to the artwork of the time period • Compare to Middle Ages values. • Describe the “ideal” man and woman of the Renaissance
What Was the Renaissance? Ren. time of creativity & change in many areas political, social, economic, and cultural. the way ppl viewed themselves & their world. Ren. thinkers explored the human experience in the here and now. Emphasized individual achievement. Ren. ideal was the person w/talent in many fields. 1 25
3 Important Values that set Ren. Thought apart from the MA HISisms • Humanism: Love of Classical Learning • Individualism: Celebration of the Individual • Secularism: Enjoyment of Worldly Pleasures
Humanism • Humanism- study of classical culture • What every educated person should know • Focused: Greco-Roman • scholars rejected culture of MA • return to Greco-Roman culture • All art inspired by Greece & Rome • Freestanding statues How is this different from the Middle Ages?
Individualism • Celebration of the individual • Individuals become more important than churches, guilds, etc. • Artists wanted to be remembered- everyone did! • Biographies & portrait painting • emphasize importance of individuals How is this diff. from the Middle Ages?
Secularism • Secularism: the belief that religion should have no part in political /public affairs • Enjoy worldly pleasures/luxuries • Clothes, jewels, food • Art had more earthly subjects How is this different from the MA?
The Renaissance 'Individual'
Ideals for Men and Women During the Renaissance • Baldassare Castiglione’s, “The Courtier” provided an outline of what was considered ‘ideal’ for men/women.
Expected: well educated, especially in the classics Charming, Polite & Witty… Dancing, singing, poetry & music were all necessities Also, being strong & athletic is important Some Characteristics of the Ideal Man
Like men, wmn expected to … Know classical lit. Play music, dance & be charming However, wmn not expected to be poets/painters Should inspire art Manage house & kids Not get involved in social discussions The Ideal Woman
The Renaissance “Man” • Broad knowledge about many things in different fields. • Deep knowledge/skill in one area. • Able to link information from different areas/disciplines & create new knowledge. • The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Ren. edu.