Renaissance • Oligarchy • A form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class. • During the Renaissance era Italy was run by the upper class.
Renaissance • Grandi • Nobles and Merchants • The grandi traditionally ruled the city.
Renaissance • "popolo grasso“ • Capitalist and Bankers • They began to challenge the grandi for political power.
Renaissance • "popolo minuto“ • Lower economic class • They lead the Ciompi Revolt due to economic suppression
Renaissance • Ciompi Revolt • Revolt of the popolo minuto • It established a chaotic four year reign of power by the lower Florentine classes.
Renaissance • Cosimo de Medici • Cosimo de Medici: • The first of the Medici political dynasty • He established the Signoria.
Renaissance • Lorenzo de Medici • Italian statesman and ruler of the Florentine Republic • He established a despot called podesta to prevent internal social conflict.
Renaissance • Signoria • A council of six to eight guild members • It governed the city of Florence.
Renaissance • Condotteri • Military Brokers • It helped Lorenzo maintain law and order in Florence
Renaissance • Humanism • The study of Latin and Greek classics to promote a rebirth of ancient times. • Humanist advocated studia humanitatis which is a liberal arts program that embraced grammar, history, politics and moral philosophy
Renaissance • Civic Humanism • Education designed to promote humanist leadership of political and cultural life • Civic Humanists Salutati, Bruni and Bracciolini were chancellors of Florence who rallied Florence against Naples and Milan.
Renaissance • Petrarch • Humanist Writer • He celebrated ancient Rome in his work “Letters to the Dead” and his biographies of famous Roman men.
Renaissance • Dante • Humanist writer • He wrote Divine Comedy which were the corner stones of the Italian Vernacular literature.
Renaissance • Boccaccio • Pioneer of humanist studies • He assembled an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology
Renaissance • Castiglione • Italian Humanist Writer • He wrote “Book of the Courtier” which illustrates that the rediscovered knowledge of the past is both a model and a challenge to the present.
Renaissance • Lorenzo Valla • Humanist scholar • He wrote and Expose of the Donation of Constantine using textual analysis and historical logic to prove that the Donation was filled with anarchist terms and information
Renaissance • Leonardo da Vinci • Great painter known as the “Renaissance Man” • He painted Mona Lisa.
Renaissance • Raphael • Italian Painter • He painted Modannas
Renaissance • Michelangelo • Painter and sculptor • He painted David and the Sistine Chapel
Renaissance • Treaty of Lodi • Peace agreement issued on April 9, 1454 between the Milan and Naples. • In 1494 the peace ended when Naples supported by Florence threatened Milan.
Renaissance • Alexander VI • Bogia Pope • He was a corrupted Pope who supported the crusades of Caesar and Lucrezia
Renaissance • Louis XI • King of France • He unified France and put down the alliances of unruly nobles
Renaissance • Charles VIII • French King • Within five months he conquered land from the Alps to Florence and the Papal States in Naples.
Renaissance • Louis XII • King of France • In 1500 he and Ferdinand of Aragon divided Naples between themselves
Renaissance • Girolamo Savonarola • Priest and Leader of Florence • On May 13, 1497 he was excommunicated by Alexander VI.
Renaissance • Ludovico il Moro • King of Italy • He encouraged the French participation in wars which resulted in the Italian War
Renaissance • Julius II • Warrior Pope • Suppressed Borgia and place conquered lands in Romagna under papal jurisdiction
Renaissance • Emperor Maximillian I • Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire • He expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg
Renaissance • Ferdinand & Isabella • Married and united Castile and Aragon. • They accomplished things together that neither one of them could do alone such as securing their borders and christianizing Spain.
Renaissance • The War of the Roses • English civil war that was fought by the House of Lancaster and House of York for the English throne • The House of York was victorious and the English throne was given to Edward IV.
Renaissance • Henry VII • King of England • He established the King’s council to keep the nobles in check and to ensure that they paid their taxes.
Renaissance • Holy Roman Empire • United Germany, Austria, Bohemia and Morsula under one ruler • Originated in 926 under the rule of King Otto I and ended in 1806 when Francis III dismissed it.
Renaissance • Johann Gutenburg • He invented the printing press • The first thing to be printed was copies of the bible to be distributed to the common people
Renaissance • Thomas More • Humanist Scholar • He was the author of Utopia
Renaissance • Erasmus • Northern Humanist • He was a life long Catholic who pushed for major Church Reforms
Renaissance • Christian Humanism • Belief that human freedom and individualism are a natural part of the Christine doctrine and practice. • Roman Catholic Priest who migrated to America wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity and bring them European learning and civilization.
Renaissance • Conquistadors • Spanish soldiers, explorers and adventurers who invaded and conquered territories in America and brought them under Spanish rule • Christopher Columbus is an example of a conquistador.
Renaissance • Encomienda • A system instituted in 1503 under which Spanish soldiers or colonists were granted a tract of land or a village with its Indian inhabitants. • It declined by the 16th century because Spanish monarchs feared its holders might become too powerful.
Renaissance • Repartimiento • Required adult male Indians to devote a certain amount of days of annual labor to Spanish economic empires. • The limitation on labor time led Spanish managers to a used their workers on the assumption that fresh workers would soon replace them.
Renaissance • Mita • Required adult male Indians to devote a certain amount of days of annual labor to Peru economic empires. • The limitation on labor time led Peru managers to a used their workers on the assumption that fresh workers would soon replace them.
Reformation • The Modern Devotion • Also, known as the Brothers of the Common Life, were religious individuals that did not necessarily agree with the actions of the Catholic Church and sought to provide aid to the impoverished European community. • Martin Luther and Erasmus were both part of the Modern Devotion, which pushed a desire to have religious scriptures in the vernacular, or in the spoken language of an area.
Reformation • William of Ockham • A central religious figure in the medieval times, and in contrast to Thomas Aquinas, his major ideologies got his condemnation from the Catholic Church. • Ockham was an English medieval writer, setting the precedent for the denunciation of Catholic values by the English during the Reformation. Furthermore, Ockham was one of the first individuals that promoted a separation of state and religion, by having an emperor and Pope ruling and having equal power.
Reformation • John Wycliffe • A religious leader in the fourteenth century, who laid the foundations for Protestant Reformation, because of his challenge to the established quo, or the power of the Catholic Church. His followers were called the Lollards. • Wycliffe believed that the clergy needed to be less concern about their physical life and play a more important role in their religious life. Also, he believed personal merit was the basis to a true religious person and he was denounced of being a Donatist because he believed that the performance of religious sacraments depended on both the moral of the person and the performance
Reformation • Jan Huss • Jan Huss led the movement in Bohemia, which sought to reform the Catholic Church in Central Europe, although, it lacked a lot of controlling power, and a contemporary of Wycliffe. • He was against the established power of the Catholic Church; he denounced the validity of some sacraments and the idea of transubstantiation, which would be extremely popular among Luther and Zwingli, two centuries later. Also, he supported the translation of the scriptures in the vernacular.
Reformation • Avginon Papacy • The split of the Catholic Church because of the influence of the French monarchy in the papacy, which weakened its hold on European society. • The Catholic Church began to lose strength because of its political manipulation of the countries and its economic desire to gain wealth. European countries denounced the Church for its inability to unite it. Britain restricted the flow of money that went to Rome, while the French were able to control how many and which cardinals it would sent to Rome.
Reformation • Great Schism • The Great Schism is the split of the church along the line of who was the ruling pope, at one point there were three popes ruling over the papacy. One was supported by the French, and another by the Church in Rome. • This separation demonstrated the weakness of the Church and how easily a political conflict could weaken its power over Europe. Also, it helped future reformers because it helped pin point problems within the Catholic Church.
Reformation • Concilliarism • The Concilliar movement in Europe wanted to reunify the papacy by which the cardinals called meetings to elect their pious leader. Concilliarism sought to regulate the power of the Pope by creating a council of cardinals. After the Council of Constance, the three existing popes were removed from power, and Pope Martin V was elected. • Concilliarism gave more freedom to the local churches and their secular governments. Therefore, monarchies began exercising more power over the church lands and began expanding their economic desires. This movement also allowed countries to leave the radar of the Church, and conquering their own economic and social aspirations
Reformation • Benefice System • The Benefice system gave priests money for guiding the laity and also provided money to the Church. By having multiple laities to tend, the priest gained more money, which was used for Church activities, such as the education of reformers, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin. • The benefice system funneled large sums of money into the Church and the clergy. However, during the Protestant Reformation, the benefice system would become one of Luther’s main challenges to the Church and desire to reform it.
Reformation • Martin Luther • Luther became the largest challenger to Catholicism after his posting of the Ninety-Five thesis in 1517 in Germany. Luther sought to reform the Catholic Church after denouncing the sale of indulgences, the translation of religious scriptures in the vulgate, and the manipulation of the laity for economic desires. • Luther had a defining effect during the sixteenth century because of his reformist views of the Catholic Church. His views were used to form the new Christian sect called the Protestants, even though he did not want to separate from the Church. His three main views were justification by faith alone, attack on indulgences, and sola scriptura.
Reformation • Indulgences • People were able to buy off their sins if they could pay for them, which would allow them to avoid going to purgatory. The sale of indulgences funded the creation of St. Peter’s Basilica. • Indulgences became one of the most attacked ideologies of the Catholic Church. These sales manipulated the fear and social inability of Europeans to understand the economic needs of the Catholic Church. However, the sale of indulgences were not the main issue, it was that secular governments did not receive part of the wealth generated from the indulgences.