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Lecture 4 The Early Renaissance (1500 AD) Late Renaissance (1600 AD) Baroque (1700 AD). Sejarah Senibina Barat BAEA 2115 Naziaty Mohd Yaacob. Renaissance 15 th Century. Florence is an Italian city that became famous as the birthplace of the Renaissance.
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Lecture 4The Early Renaissance (1500 AD)Late Renaissance (1600 AD)Baroque (1700 AD) Sejarah Senibina Barat BAEA 2115 Naziaty Mohd Yaacob
Renaissance 15th Century • Florence is an Italian city that became famous as the birthplace of the Renaissance. • Such great artists as Leonardo da Vinci, Fra Angelico, Giotto, and Michelangelo produced many of Florence's magnificent paintings and sculptures. Great writers who lived in the city included Giovanni Boccaccio, Dante, and Petrarch.
Leonardo's scientific drawings include his famous study of human proportions called Vitruvian man thatfits into the perfect shapes of the square and circle. . • Like other artists, Leonardo was interested in the proportions of the human body. According to Vitruvius, the Roman architect, the parts of the body are related to one another in ratios of whole numbers, and these ratios should be used in the design of architecture. • Because of his inquiring mind, Leonardo has become a symbol of the Renaissance spirit of learning and intellectual curiosity.
Renaissance Italy • Renaissance Italy consisted of about 250 states, most of which were ruled by a city. The Renaissance began during the 1300's in the city-states of northern Italy. Early centers of the Renaissance included the cities of Florence, Milan, and Venice. • World Book map
Florentines • The architect Filippo Brunelleschi and the political analyst Niccolo Machiavelli were born in Florence, and the astronomer Galileo did some of his work there.
Brunelleschi’s dome Brunelleschi was the first Renaissance architect to revive the ancient Roman style of architecture. He incorporated arches, columns, and other elements of classical architecture into his designs.
Brunelleschi's design contained two shells for the dome, an inner shell made of a lightweight material, and an outer shell of heavier wind-resistant materials, so that during construction because workers could sit atop the inner shell to build the outer shell of the dome. To support the dome Brunelleschi devised an ingenius ring and rib support from oak timbers. The rings hug both shells of the dome, and the supports run through them.
Brunelleschi’s Designs • Pazzi Chapel, Florence • Vaults and domes • S Lorenzo, Florence • (for Medici Family) • Vaults and domes • Basilican plan • Added sacristy • Roman ideas followed
Alberti – • The Church of Sant' Andrea in Mantua, Italy, was designed by Leon Battista Alberti in the mid-1400's. The front resembles a Roman temple with an arch. • (c) Gian Berto Vanni, Art Resource
Alberti • Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Italy, is a leading example of Italian Renaissance architecture. The church's facade was designed by Leon Battista Alberti in the mid-1400's. (c) Gian Berto Vanni, Art Resource
High Renaissance • Bramante • Raphael • Sangallo • Michelangelo
Sangallo 15th Century Palace in Florence with symmetrical plan, interesting cornice and courtyard (1489)
Bramante • 1493 • Bramante added a ‘tribune’ (domed crossing and choir) to Solari’s Gothic structure (1463). • Intended as a Mausoleum for the Sforza dukes. • Domed concealed by Conical roof.
St. Peter’s Rome • 1506 – 1626 Bramante Michelangelo Sangallo
The Palazzo Vidoni Caffarelli in Rome (1515) By Raphael. Heavily rusticated ground storey, below a ‘piano nobile’ with windows set between paired columns. High renaissance characteristics.
Contrast Raphael’s High Renaissance building with Alberti’s (Early Renaissance) Plazzo Rucellai in Florence (1446-51)
Palazzo Farnese, last of the High Renaissance, where five years later Palazzo Massimi became an example of Mannerist architecture.
Mannerist Biblioteca Laurenziana, Florence (1524-57) by Micelangelo. Mannerist traits using Illogicality, like the coupled columns on brackets. Also give contrast to the long perspective of the library itself.
Medici Chapel in S. Lorenzo, Florence (begun 1521) by Michelangelo as a marriage of sculpture and architecture
Plan of the Capitol, Rome, laid out by Michelangelo (1538-1612). Sense of enclosure (left) Palazzo del Senatore (1573-1612) largely designed by Michelangelo. With raised basement storey giving prominence. Giant order of pilasters. Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor, on the concourse.
Mannerist Top Use of rustification to create monumental strength with playful details Bottom String course becomes pediment. Using stucco like stone effect
Villa Rotonda (1550) By Palladio Absolute symmetry; Classical proportions; Clear on plan
Planning the City • Piazza at St Peter’s Square by Bernini • At the Vatican City
BaroqueArchitecture • Bernini’s Scala Regia in the Vatican (1663-6) is made to seem longer by reducing the height and width as it ascends.
Borromini’s façade of S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome (1667) Classic elements, with concave plane set against convex.
Borromini’s S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome (1633)
S. Ivo della Sapienza, Rome (1642-60). Borromini using plan based on a six point star with a fantastic dome developed
The façade of Sta Maria Della Pace, Rome (1656-7) by Cortona making the upper level curve contrast with semi circular porch below creating tension.
Dome of the Chapel of the Santissima Sindone, Turin Cathedral (1667-90) Guarini combined Gothic and Islamic Architecture and produce a unique dome built up by segmented arches on one another. Each pierced emitting light.
Palazzo Carignano, Turin (begun 1678). Guarini gives interest to façade by alternating concave and convex sections, derive from Bernini. Texture and ornament almost Arabic in character.
At S. Agnese, in Rome (begun) 1652), Borromini created the towers to be independent of the plan and created a town planning (urban) interest. Producing each towers as a Sculptural entity.
Renaissance outside of Italy • Versailles Palace in France (by Le Vau from 1669) • Queen’s House in Greenwich in England (by Inigo Jones from 1616-35) • St. Paul’s Cathedral(by Christopher Wren from 1675 – 1710)
The Queen’s House in Greenwich, England by Inigo Jones (1616 – 35)
St. Paul’s Cathedral by Christopher Wren (1675-1710)
Chatsworth House, Derbyshire for the Duke of Devonshire, By William Talman (from 1686)
Bleinheim Palace, Oxfordshire by Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor, English Baroque Architecture fine example (1705-24)
Blenheim Palace Great court flanked by stable and kitchen courts; Main axis Curving quadrants