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European Middle Ages, Black Death, Renaissance, Hundred Years War, Era of Discovery, Reformation PowerPoint Presentation
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European Middle Ages, Black Death, Renaissance, Hundred Years War, Era of Discovery, Reformation

European Middle Ages, Black Death, Renaissance, Hundred Years War, Era of Discovery, Reformation

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European Middle Ages, Black Death, Renaissance, Hundred Years War, Era of Discovery, Reformation

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  1. European Middle Ages, Black Death, Renaissance, Hundred Years War, Era of Discovery, Reformation AP World History Ch. 9, 14, 15, 16

  2. When Rome collapsed @ 500 A.D. Europe experienced disorder and chaos. The Germanic Tribes were brutal: murdering, plundering, and slavery. Europe fell into disrepair. Cities ceased to exist. Villagers stayed in their own areas. Farming became less productive.

  3. Germanic tribes divided Western Europe into many small kingdoms. Starvation was common. 4 out of 5 children died in infancy. People forgot how to be civilized – forgot how to read. During this time, Europe was cut off from advanced civilizations in the Middle East, China, and India.

  4. The Germanic peoples had no cities or written laws. elected kings to lead them in war. Rewarded warrior nobles who swore loyalty to the king with weapons and loot.

  5. The Franks were the strongest of the Germanic tribes. Clovis, king of the Franks, conquered Gaul and then converted to Christianity, the religion of the people in Gaul. • By doing so, he gained a powerful ally in the Christian Church of Rome.

  6. Early Medieval Europe, 300–1000 In the 5th century, Roman Empire broke down. Europe was politically fragmented, with Germanic kings ruling a number of dissimilar kingdoms. Western Europe continued to suffer invasions -- Muslim Arabs and Berbers took the Iberian Peninsula and pushed into France. 8th century, the Carolingians united various Frankish kingdoms into a larger empire. At its height, under Charlemagne, the empire included Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. The empire was subdivided by Charlemagne’s grandsons and was never united again. Vikings attacked England, France, and Spain in the late 8th and 9th centuries. Vikings also settled Iceland and Normandy, from which the Norman William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066. (Battle of Hastings)

  7. Coast of NW France became home to a tribe of Vikings in 911 after the Frankish king, Charles the Simple, struck a bargain with the marauding, seafaring Vikings. Deciding it would be easier and less destructive to grant land from his kingdom to the Vikings rather than face their invasions-- Charles surrendered a coastal region of thick forests, rolling hills, and rich pastures to the Normans.

  8. The Normans recognized Charles as their king and agreed to convert to Christianity. The Vikings intermarried with local women, and adopted the French language. Normandy was a land of pastures where horses thrived. The Normans became expert riders. Such horse-bound fighting men developed into an elite group of military servants to their king known as knights. Knights soon became the standard warriors of kings across Europe.

  9. Dominance of English Indo-European / offspring of proto-Germanic 5th – 6th centuries: migration of Danish, North German Frisian, Jutes, Angles, and Saxons many dialects, West Saxon dominated (Standard Old English) 1066: Norman Conquest in 11th century French dominated nobility 1204: tie with France severed Middle English (French enriched) 15th – 16th centuries: Early Modern English

  10. A Self-Sufficient Economy economic transformation included de-urbanization and a decline in trade. Self-sufficient farming estates called manors were the primary centers of agricultural production. Manors grew from the need for self-sufficiency and self-defense. The lord of a manor had almost unlimited power over his agricultural workers—the serfs.

  11. Need for military security led to new military technology: the stirrup, bigger horses, armor and weapons of the knight. Equipment was expensive, knights therefore needed land to support themselves. Kings & nobles granted land (a fief) to a man in return for a promise to supply military service. By the 10th century, these fiefs had become hereditary. Kings were weak because they depended on their vassals—who might very well hold fiefs from and be obliged to more than one lord. Vassals held most of a king’s realm, and most of the vassals granted substantial parts of land to their vassals. Kings and nobles had limited ability to administer and tax their realms. Their power was further limited by their inability to tax the vast landholdings of the Church. For most medieval people, the lord’s manor was the government. Noble women were pawns in marriage politics. Women could own land, however, and non-noble women worked alongside the men.

  12. The Law of the Church The Church has system of justice to guide people’s conduct All medieval Christians expected to obey canon law—Church law Canon law governs marriages and religious practices Popes have power over political leaders through threat of excommunication —banishment from Church, denial of salvation -interdiction—king’s subjects denied sacraments and services Kings and emperors expected to obey pope’s commands

  13. The Church and the Holy Roman Empire Otto I Allies with the Church Otto I (Otto the Great) is crowned king of Germany in 936 Limits strength of nobles with help of clergy Gains support of bishops and abbots (heads of monasteries) Invades Italy on pope’s behalf; pope crowns him emperor in 962 Signs of Future Conflicts Otto’s German-Italian lands become Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire is the strongest European power until about 1100

  14. The Crusades The Beginning of the Crusades In 1093, Byzantine emperor asks for help fighting the Turks Pope Urban II issues a call for a Crusade—a “holy war” Goals of the Crusades 1. God 2. Gold 3. Glory Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christianity Kings use the Crusades to send away knights who cause trouble Younger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth through trade

  15. The First and Second Crusades Pope promises Crusaders who die a place in heaven First Crusade: three armies gather at Constantinople in 1097 Crusaders capture Jerusalem in 1099 Captured lands along coast divided into four Crusader states Muslims take back Edessa in 1144; Second Crusade fails to retake it In 1187 Saladin—Muslim leader and Kurdish warrior—retakes Jerusalem

  16. The Third Crusade Third Crusade led by three powerful rulers One is Richard the Lion-Hearted—king of England Phillip II of France abandons Crusade after arguing with Richard Frederick I of Germany drowns during the journey In 1192 Richard and Saladin make peace after many battles Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter city Later Crusades Fourth Crusade: Crusaders loot Constantinople in 1204 Two other Crusades strike Egypt, but fail to weaken Muslims

  17. The Children’s Crusade In 1212 thousands of children die or are enslaved in failed crusade A Spanish Crusade Most of Spain controlled by Moors, a Muslim people Christians fight Reconquista—drive Muslims from Spain, 1100 to 1492 Spain has Inquisition—court to suppress heresy; expels non-Christians The Crusades Change Life Crusades show power of Church in convincing thousands to fight Women who stay home manage the estate and business affairs Merchants expand trade, bring back many goods from Southwest Asia Failure of later crusades weakens pope and nobles, strengthens kings Crusades create lasting bitterness between Muslims and Christians

  18. Development of Guilds Guildsdevelop—organization of people in the same occupation Merchant guilds begin first; they keep prices up, provide security Skilled artisans, men and women, form craft guilds Guilds set standards for quality, prices, wages, working conditions Guilds supervise training of new members of their craft The wealth of guilds influences government and economy

  19. How the Church Spread Frankish rulers convert Germanic peoples to Christianity Missionaries travel to convert Germanic and Celtic groups Church builds monasteries -where monks live to study and serve God Italian monk, Benedict, writes rules that govern monastic life Monks establish schools, preserve learning through libraries Papal Power Expands Under Gregory I In 590, Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great, becomes pope Church becomes secular—a political power Pope’s palace becomes center of Roman government Uses Church money to raise armies, care for poor, negotiate treaties

  20. Social Classes Are Well Defined Medieval feudal system classifies people into three social groups -those who fight: nobles and knights -those who pray: monks, nuns, leaders of the Church -those who work: peasants Social class is usually inherited; majority of people are peasants Most peasants are serfs—people lawfully bound to place of birth Serfs aren’t slaves, but what they produce belongs to their lord Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism The Lord’s Estate: a manor, was an economic system (manor system) Serfs and free peasants maintain the lord’s estate, give grain The lord provides housing, farmland, protection from bandits

  21. The Harshness of Manor Life Peasants pay taxes to use mill and bakery; pay a tithe to priest Tithe—a church tax—is equal to one-tenth of a peasant’s income Serfs live in crowded cottages with dirt floors, straw for beds Daily grind of raising crops, livestock; feeding and clothing family Poor diet, illness, malnutrition make life expectancy 35 years Serfs generally accept their lives as part of God’s plan

  22. Development of Guilds Guildsdevelop—organization of people in the same occupation Merchant guilds begin first; they keep prices up, provide security Skilled artisans, men and women, form craft guilds Guilds set standards for quality, prices, wages, working conditions Guilds supervise training of new members of their craft The wealth of guilds influences government and economy

  23. Fairs and Trade Europe sees Commercial Revolution—changes in business and trade Trade fairs are held several times a year in towns Trade routes open to Asia, North Africa, and Byzantine ports Business and Banking Merchants develop credit to avoid carrying large sums of money Merchants take out loans to purchase goods, and banking grows Society Changes Economic changes lead to the growth of cities and of paying jobs

  24. The Age of Chivalry The code of chivalry for knights glorifies combat and romantic love. The Technology of Warfare Changes Leather saddle and stirrups enable knights to handle heavy weapons In 700s, mounted knights become most important part of an army The Warrior’s Role in Feudal Society By 1000s, western Europe is a battleground of warring nobles Feudal lords raise private armies of knights Knights rewarded with land; provides income needed for weapons Knights’ other activities help train them for combat

  25. The Code of Chivalry By 1100s knights obey code of chivalry—a set of ideals on how to act They are to protect weak and poor; serve feudal lord, God, chosen lady A Knight’s Training Boys begin to train for knighthood at age 7; usually knighted at 21 Knights gain experience in local wars and tournaments — mock battles Brutal Reality of Warfare Castles are huge fortresses where lords live Attacking armies use wide range of strategies and weapons

  26. Origins and Impact of the Plague In 1300s, Europe suffers bubonic plague—extremely deadly disease Begins in Asia; spreads to Italy and other countries over trade routes About one-third of Europe’s population dies in the epidemic China: the population dropped from around 125 million to 90 million over the course of the 14thc.

  27. Effects of the Plague • Town populations fall, trade declines, prices rise • Some serfs leave manors for paying work • Many Jews blamed and killed; Church suffers weakened stature

  28. Plague came to Europe in 1347. By 1350 it had moved out of western Europe. In the space of two years, 1 out of every 3 people was dead. Some areas suffered little, others suffered far more. Between 45% and 75% of Florence died in a single year. One-third died in the first six months. Its entire economic system collapsed for a time. In Venice, 60% died over the course of 18 months: five hundred to six hundred a day at the height.

  29. In Europe, the Jews were easy targets of blame. They were not the only group accused of poisoning water or witchcraft bringing on the plague, but they suffered the anger of mob violence over a wide area. • There were massacres, and many more cases of the Jews being expelled from towns. On one day in Strassbourg in 1349, nearly 200 Jews were burned to death by an angry mob.

  30. The Literature of Chivalry Epic poems recount a hero’s deeds and adventures The Song of Roland is about Charlemagne’s knights fighting Muslims Love Poems and Songs Knights’ duties to ladies are as important as those to their lords Troubadours—traveling poet-musicians—write and sing short verses Most celebrated woman of the age is Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122–1204) Eleanor’s son, Richard the Lion-Hearted, also wrote songs and poems

  31. Women’s Role in Feudal Society Status of Women According to the Church and feudal society, women are inferior to men Noblewomen can inherit land, defend castle, send knights to war on lord’s request Usually confined to activities of the home or convent Peasant Women Most labor in home and field, bear children, provide for family Poor, powerless, do household tasks at young age

  32. The Power of the Church Church leaders and political leaders compete for power and authority. The Structure of the Church Power within Church is organized by status; pope is supreme authority Clergy—religious officials—includes bishops, priests, and others Bishops supervise priests, settle Church disputes Religion as a Unifying Force Religion important in Middle Ages; shared beliefs bond people Clergy administers the sacraments—rites to achieve salvation Village church is place of worship and celebration