The Renaissance 1450 -1600
THE RENAISSANCE • What does “renaissance” mean? • A re-birth of what?
The Early Renaissance1400s – 1490s Where did the Renaissance begin? Why did it begin there? What were the driving factors behind the Renaissance?
The Italian City-States What is a City-State?
The Italian City-States What were the advantages?
The Italian City-States What were the disadvantages?
The Italian City-States Florence and Milan were ruled by rival families, the Medici’s and the Sforza Family respectively.
The Italian City-States Venice was a Republic, ruled by a Senate which elected a Doge to head the government. The Doge remained in power for life but the position was not hereditary.
The Italian City-States The Papal states were run by the Pope elected by the Bishops for life. The power of which was diminishing as the Renaissance ideas of humanism and secularism were expanding.
Florence, Italy • The Cultural Center of Europe in the Early Renaissance • Art • Commerce • Banking
The Social Structure POPULO GROSSO: “fat people” – 5% of the population – elite/nobles, wealthy merchants, and manufacturers. MEDIOCI: middle – smaller merchants and master artisans. SKILLED WORKERS POPULO MINUTO: “little people” – bulk of the urban population. UNSKILLED WORKERS
The Social Structure There was some social mobility – Why?
The Medici Family Cosimo established the Medici Bank and “unofficially” ruled Florence from 1434-1464 He was a patron of the humanities and supporter of Bunelleschi and Donatello among others Catherine de’Medici married Henry of Navarre and became the Queen of France Piero lost control of Florence in 1492. He died in exile Lorenzo de’Medici was known as The Magnifient. He was also a patron of humanities and supported Botticello, da Vinci, and Michelangelo Piero’s son Lorenzo gained control of Florence back and ruled at the height of the Medici’s power over Florence
The Medici Family • Wealthy Banking Family – provided stability • Banished rival clans • Manipulated electoral process • Cosimo’s Grandson – survived an assassination attempt – hours later enemies of the family were hanging upside down from a government building – including the archbishop of Pisa • Botticello was commissioned to paint them as they swung.
The Beginning of the Modern Banking System INDIVIDUALISM The Medici’s set up the first modern banking system with branches in England and Bruges as well as throughout the Italian peninsula The Gold Florin became the standard currency in European trade WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF BANKING? WHAT ARE THE RISKS?
HUMANISM INDIVIDUALISM A transition from the scholasticism of the Middle Ages Revival of Greek and Roman beliefs Appreciation of physical beauty Emphasis on man’s own achievements Secularism PETRARCH – considered the first humanist
Science and Technology INDIVIDUALISM Influenced by Humanism which encouraged curiosity and questioning of accepted beliefs Experimentation and observation Define and understand the laws of nature and the physical world.
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE • 1400-1490s • Patronage of the Medici family made: • Florence the center of the Early Renaissance • Allowed artists to become successful celebrities
Brunelleschi 1446-1461 8 sided dome of Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral The symbol of Florence
Brunelleschi INDIVIDUALISM Devised a way to draw and paint using linear perspective “chiaroscuro” – the illusion of 3D
Donatello David, de Donatello 1430 – commissioned by Cosimo de Medici Humanism – first free standing nude statue since ancient times Civic-humanism
Titian & Giorgione INDIVIDUALISM Developed method of painting with oil directly on canvas Allowed artists to reword an image which they couldn’t do with fresco painting Transitioning into the Northern Renaissance
Desiderius ERASMUS Erasmus of Rotterdam promoted religious toleration wanted the Church to reform
The High Renaissance 1490s – 1527 Rome replaced Florence as the center of culture Pope Leo X – he was the son of Lorenzo de Medici
Michelangelo David 1501- 1504– became the symbol of Florence Dominant sculptor of the Renaissance Humanism – reflected the ideals of the Greek Gods
Michelangelo INDIVIDUALISM Pieta, 1498 - 1499
Michelangelo The Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 1508 - 1512
Leonardo da Vinci • Mona Lisa, 1503-1506 • “Renaissance Man” • Artist • Scientist • Architect • Philosopher • Engineer
Leonardo da Vinci The Virgin of the Rocks, 1483 Unparalleled ability to portray light and shadow And to portray the physical relationship between figures and the landscape
Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper, 1494 - 1498
Raphael The School of Athens, 1509-1511 Learned from Michelangelo and da Vinci Humanism – expressed classical ideals of beauty, serenity and harmony
Northern Renaissance Northern “Christian” Humanism – applied the Classical beliefs and ideals to the traditional understandings of the gospel. Art was more detailed and more focused on color than in the Italian Renaissance Sir Thomas More - Utopia
Jan Van Eyck Arnolfini Portrait – 1434 Netherlands Techniques allowed for deeper and more vibrant color Considered one of the first painting of “everyday life”
Albrecht Durer INDIVIDUALISM Self Portrait, 1500 Germany
Hans Holbein the Younger Portrait of Henry VIII, 1536 German Became the Court Painter for Henry VIII Humanist
Pieter Bruegel, the Elder The Peasant Wedding, 1567 Flemish (Belgian)
Transitions of the Renaissance HUMANISM Scholasticism SECULAR RELIGIOUS REALISM IDEALISM