chapter 6 ancient rome 500 bce 500 ce n.
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Chapter 6: Ancient Rome 500 BCE-500 CE. Section 1: The Roman Republic. The Origins of Rome. Legend: Romulus & Remus Important location: Tiber River, center of Italian peninsula, center of Mediterranean Greatly influenced by Greece. Legend of Romulus and Remus. The Early Republic.

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the origins of rome
The Origins of Rome
  • Legend: Romulus & Remus
  • Important location: Tiber River, center of Italian peninsula, center of Mediterranean
  • Greatly influenced by Greece
the early republic
The Early Republic
  • 600 BCE: Rome has its first king
  • 509 BCE: Tarquin the Proud has its last king (he was a jerk)
  • Kings replaced by a republic: a form of govt. in which power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders

See page 157.

What are some similarities in the governments of the Roman Republic and the United States?

Which government seems more democratic? Why?

Early in the republic, patricians (wealthy landowners who had most of the power) and plebeians (common farmers, artisans, and merchants—majority of pop.) struggled for power
  • Plebeians were eventually allowed to form their own assembly and elect representatives called tribunes
  • The plebeians forced the creation of the first law code called the twelve tables
In times of crisis, the republic could appoint a dictator (a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army)
  • All citizens who owned land were required to serve in the army
  • Roman soldiers were organized into large military units called legions
rome spreads its power
Rome Spreads its Power
  • Rome conquers Italy by 265 BCE
  • Rome’s location gave it easy access to the Mediterranean Sea
  • 264 BCE-146 BCE: Rome and Carthage fight the Punic Wars
  • Rome’s general Scipio wins war against Carthage’s general Hannibal
the republic collapses
The Republic Collapses
  • As Rome grew, the gap between the patricians and plebeians grew wider and this discontent led to a civil war in Rome
  • As the republic grew unstable, generals began taking power for themselves, recruiting the landless poor to become their soldiers in exchange for land and pay
  • 60 BCE: Julius Caesar (a military leader) joins forces with Crassus (a wealthy Roman) and Pompey (a popular general) and is elected consul in 59 BCE; for 10 years these three men ruled Rome as a triumvirate (a group of three rulers)
rome under caesar
Rome Under Caesar
  • 44 BCE: Caesar named dictator for life; started reforms (more citizenship granted, expanded the senate, created jobs for poor)
  • Some nobles and senators were concerned about Caesar’s growing power, success, and popularity and feared losing their influence
  • March 15, 44 BCE: Caesar assassinated (stabbed to death) by a number of important senators
beginning of the empire
Beginning of the Empire
  • Civil war broke out again after Caesar’s death and destroyed what was left of the republic
  • 43 BCE: Octavian (Caesar’s adopted son), Mark Antony (a general), and Lepidus (a powerful politician) take control of Rome and rule for 10 years as the Second Triumvirate
  • Octavian becomes the unchallenged ruler of Rome, taking the title Augustus (or “exalted one”); he’s also called emperor
a vast and powerful empire
A Vast and Powerful Empire
  • Pax Romana: time of peace and prosperity; lasted 207 years
  • Augustus stabilized the frontier, glorified Rome with public buildings, and set up a civil service where he paid workers to manage the empire
  • Agriculture was the most important industry in the empire (90% of people engaged in farming!)
  • Rome’s vast trading network by land and sea brought additional food
the roman world
The Roman World
  • Slavery was widespread and important (maybe 1/3 of total population)
  • There was a large gap between the rich and the poor
  • Many people are poor, homeless, and starving
section 4 the fall of the roman empire

Section 4: The Fall of the Roman Empire

Problems from within the empire and from outside the empire

a century of crisis
A Century of Crisis
  • Rome’s interior weakens due to:
    • tribes outside the boundaries of the empire and pirates on the Mediterranean disrupting trade
    • raising taxes
    • making more money (inflation—a drastic drop in the value of money along with a rise in prices)
    • food shortages and disease spreading (less people)
    • the military becoming less disciplined and loyal
    • hiring mercenaries (foreign soldiers who fought for money) who had little sense of loyalty to the empire
    • Average citizens losing their sense of patriotism
emperors attempt reform
Emperors Attempt Reform
  • Diocletian:
    • divides the empire in two (Greek-speaking East and Latin-speaking West)
    • rules the east and appoints a co-ruler in the west
  • Constantine:
    • gains control of the western part of the empire then the eastern part, restoring the concept of a single ruler
    • Moves the capital from Rome to Byzantium (eventually renamed Constantinople)
the western empire crumbles
The Western Empire Crumbles
  • Final collapse was due to:
    • worsening internal problems
    • the separation o the Western Empire from the wealthier Eastern Empire
    • outside invasions:
      • the Huns push Germanic tribes into Roman lands
      • Attila the Hun and his soldiers terrorized both halves of the empire
  • Last Roman emperor (14-yr old Romulus Augustus) was ousted by Germanic forces in 476
  • Eastern Empire continues to flourish until 1453

What group of invaders came the greatest distance?

  • What do these invasion routes have to do with the song “Roll Over?” (There were 10 in the bed and the little one said, roll over, roll over. There were 9 in the bed and the little one said…)
the legacy of greco roman civilization
The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
  • Greco-Roman Culture: mixture of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture
  • Sculptors create realistic portraits in stone
  • Much art was intended for public education
  • The poet Virgil wrote epics (like Homer)
the legacy of rome
The Legacy of Rome
  • Latin was adopted by different peoples and developed into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian (romance languages)
  • Aqueducts, the Colosseum, and the network of roads all show how the Romans were master builders
  • Romans were the first to believe that laws should be fair and apply equally to all people