Unit 3 The World After the Fall of The Roman Empire
The Surviving Rome • Remember: split, west fell, east survived… • Byzantium- would survive for 1,000 and preserve the glory of Rome- most spoke Greek • A New Rome- • Justinian A New Caesar- Along with Belisarius he conquered much of N. Africa and Italy • Absolute power over church and state • Brutal dictators –most were assassinated
Justinian’s Obsession Restoring the Roman Empire The Code was the first step. Captured many islands (Sicily) and Northern Africa Short – lived… continued invasions of the West Did hold off invasions to the Eastern Empire
Justinian Code • Developed to unify and solidify laws of the Eastern Empire (lasted 900 years) and to regulate ALL Areas of Byzantine life- • Code- 5,000 useful laws (four volumes) • Digest- 50 volumes of legal summaries • Institutes- New Laws textbook to teach the law • Novellae- passed after 534
Daily Life and the City • Constantinople- • 14-mile stone wall along the coast and refortified the rest • Churches Hagia Sophia (“Holy Wisdom”) • Palace complex, baths, schools, hospitals… • Preserved Greco Roman Culture • Mese- Main street- open air markets and entertainment • Hippodromes- “horse-racecourse” 60,000 seats
Nikka “Victory” Rebellion • Fans in the Hippodrome often rioted • Justinian’s government was harsh • Angry mob packed the place and demanded Justinian be overthrown • He almost left, but his wife (Theodora) urged him to stay in the city • Slaughtered 30,000 fans
More about Theodora • Reforms: • rights of women in divorce and property ownership, gave mothers some guardianship rights over their children, and forbid the killing of a wife who committed adultery.
The Fall of the Byzantine Empire • After Justinian’s death- riots, religious quarrels, foreign dangers, etc. • Plague- resembled bubonic plague • Lasted until around 700 • Height in 542- 10,000 people per day died • Attacks from East and West • Used bribes, marriages, and diplomacy to resist • Constantinople managed to survive, but fell in 1453
The Church Divides • Christianity developed differently in both parts of the empire- distance and communication • Differences • Leadership- supreme authority in East was the Emperor, West was Pope • Icons- East used to aid in worship, West (Leo 111 banned their use as idol worship)- one pope excommunicated the Byzantine emperor • Religious Doctrine- the pope and patriarch excommunicated each other.
More About Icons • Objection of the western church was not about the icon itself, but the treatment of the icons • Veneration= reverence or importance of the icon was the issue • Incense, kisses, adornment, etc were common • Though honor is paid through this treatment- Eastern worshipers believed they were just paying their homage to the person or event.
The Final Split • Shortly after the joint excommunication • Roman Catholic Church= Western • Orthodox Church= Eastern • Missionaries competed for converts • Cyrillic Alphabet used to translate the Bible to convert the Slavs who developed into Russia
Russia’s Birth • Slavs (natives) interacted with Byzantines- blended into Russian culture • Place- between the Black and Baltic Seas- near the Ural Mountains, and three rivers- Dnieper, Don and Volga • Who-First= Slav farmers and traders, Varanigians AKA Rus settled in forts • Rurik, a Viking chief, became their king by invitation
Russia’s Birth (continued) • Rurik founded the city of Novograd- Russia’s first important city. • Oleg founded Kiev, another important city • This city became a major trade center because they could sail by river and sea to Constantinople
More about Kiev • Converted to Orthodox Christianity through Princess Olga who ruled for her son, who resisted conversion- her grandson eventually converted and made the people convert too. • Because of Byzantine influence Kiev became strong and grew into Russia’s first unified territory • Religion, law, trade, architecture, and art all influenced by Byzantines
Moscow Once just a small trade city Most important leader: Ivan III first to call himself tsar Goal to reunite all of Russia Married Sophia- niece of the last two Byzantine Emperors Brought much Byzantine culture to Moscow
The Mongol Invasions • When- mid 1200’s • Who were the Mongols?- ferocious nomads from Central Asia • Transportation: horse • Methods: ruthless brutality, savage killings and burnings • Leaders: Genghis Kahn and Batu Kahn • Actions in Kiev: Attacked and demolished
Mongol Rule in Russia: The Khanate of the Golden Horde (AKA Golden Camp in the Mongol language) • Leadership style: allowed Russians to follow their customs, tolerated all religions- the church acted as a mediator • Mongol demands: absolute obedience and massive tributes… NO REBELLION!
More Effects of the Mongols Negative: Russia= isolation, no access to new ideas and inventions. Split up and became more agricultural. China= moved capital, population declined- low pay for farmers Positive: Russia= fused together the govt and church China= United the dynasties, Increased trade and commerce, utilized the silk roads
Russia Breaks Free- • How? If Moscow controlled the three rivers they could control the Russian territories • Unification of small states around Moscow- through marriages and political deals • Princes found an ally: the church- the most powerful Bishop moved to Moscow • The leaders: Ivan I (Ivan Moneybag- won trust of the Mongols and was given power) and Ivan III (openly challenged Mongol Rule • Ivan III’s title= CZAR- Russian version of Caesar and shows their desire to be the Third Rome
The Ottoman Turks Located between the declining Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Empires Ghazis- warriors of Islam Leader= Osman- followers called Ottomans Military success based on use of gun-powder and cannons
Decline and Capture of the Byzantines and Constantinople Population decreased from over one-million to 50,000 Still controlled the Bosporus Strait and could cut off Ottoman access to Asia and the Balkans Mehmed II (“Give me Constantinople”) 7-week siege (Carried boats over land), constant cannon fire, broke the wall and entered the city
The Muslim World The Rise of Islam The Expansion of Islam The Muslim Culture
Geography of Arabia Crossroads of Africa, Asia, and Europe Location made trade a huge part of life for the people of Arabia Oceans and seas AND land trade through caravan routes and the silk roads Climate- deserts, Bedouins (nomads), clans, farming communities in oases- farming and market towns
Mecca Arabia’s most important city Religion- location of the Kaaba The Kaaba was an ancient shrine that held and honored many idols to the gods- many people visited the Kaaba to pay their respects to these gods Commerce- being located on the Red Sea and land trade routes made this a major trade city
The Prophet Muhammad Birth- Mecca- orphaned at age 6, raised by grandfather and uncle with little education Young man- worked on the caravan routes- married an older business woman, Khadijah Revelations- a voice, he believed was Gabrielle, said Allah was the only true god and Muhammad was the last of his prophets
Terms to Know Islam: submission to the will of Allah Muslim: one who has submitted- or the followers of Islam Allah: the one and only true God
Early Hostility 613- preaching belief in one god Leaders in Mecca feared he would lead to the neglect of the other gods Why would this be a problem? People would stop traveling to the city to pay homage to the idols in the Kaaba- economically motivated!
The Hijrah After attacks on Muhammad’s followers he decided to leave Mecca Traveled to a city 200 miles north Renamed the city Medina Gathered a large number of followers Became a military and political leader Returned to Mecca
Muhammad’s Return 630- 10,000 man army marched to Mecca Destroyed the idols in the Kaaba Took over the city and established it as an Islamic center as many citizens converted Lived 2 more years and began unification of the Arabian Peninsula
Basic Beliefs of Islam There is one God. There is good and evil Each person is responsible for his/her actions
Five Pillars of Faith Faith- one God, Allah, Muhammad is his messenger Prayer- 5 times each day toward Mecca Alms- religious tax to benefit the poor, Muslims must support the less fortunate Fasting- reminder that spiritual needs are more important than physical…. No eating during daylight hours for the month of Ramadan Pilgrimage (hajj)- all Muslims should visit the holy city of Mecca- all wear the same garments to signify equality before Allah
Other Customs, Morals and Laws of the Muslims • No eating pork or drinking alcohol • Communal worship on Friday afternoons at a Mosque • No priests, Muslims worship Allah directly
Islamic Authority Ulama- scholars who relate Islam to Quran- holy book- written in Arabic- the only true language of Islam- and is the FINAL words of Allah Sunna- Muhammad’s example or model for proper living Shari’a- body of law the regulates family life, moral conduct, business and community relations
Links to Christianity and Judaism Allah is the same as their God Jesus= prophet, not the Son of God All believe in The Ten Commandments, Heaven and Hell and final judgment All trace their ancestry to Abraham Jews and Christians are called “people of the book” Islamic law requires Muslims to extend religious tolerance to them
The Spread of Islam Caliph- successor or deputy Caliphate- rule of a Caliph Abu-Bakr was the first following Muhammad’s death “Rightly guided Caliphs” were those who knew Muhammad and followed the Quran
The Jihad As many tribes abandoned Islam following Muhammad’s death, they refused to pay tribute The jihad (means striving) was instituted to justify the spread of Islam An inner struggle against evil An armed struggle against non-believers
Success of the “Rightly Guided Caliphs” • Well disciplined and trained armies • Byzantine empire was weak due to centuries of conflict • Persecution of those who did not accept Christianity or Zoroastrianism
Islam’s Attraction Equality and hope in this world Muslims did not have to pay a poll tax (for non-Muslims) Allowed conquered people to practice their religion Christians and Jews had special treatment as “People of the Book”
A Crisis of Internal Conflict Several successors of Muhammad were assassinated and the elective system of choosing the Caliph was lost The Umayyads took over Moved the capital to Damascus Muslims of Arab descent were angered Umayyads surrounded themselves with wealth and ceremony- things not associated with Muhammad
3 Muslim Groups Emerge Shi’a- “Party of Ali” Sunni- followers of Muhammad’s example Sufi- rejected the wealth and luxury of the Umayyad and lived a simple life of poverty and devotion The Shi’a outwardly resisted the Umayyad rule and believe Caliphs must be descendent of Muhammad
The Abbasid Caliphate Around 750 the Abbasids defeated the Umayyads Moved the capital to Baghdad Developed a bureaucracy A treasury kept track of money flow Taxed land, imports, exports, and non-Muslims’ wealth Did not keep complete political control of the empire, so other Caliphates spread
The Muslim Trade Network Sea trade= Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean Land trade= Silk Roads Language of trade= Arabic, money was the Abbasid Dinar Set up bands and letters of credit called sakk (Checks)
Muslim Class Society • Upper= Muslims from births • Second= converts to Islam • Third= Protected people (monotheistic believers) • Fourth= slaves (non-Muslim prisoners of war only) There are no priests b/c Muslims pray directly to Allah
House of Wisdom = Learning Center for Islam Books translated into Arabic- helped preserve European culture Al Razi- physician who wrote a Comprehensive Book (medical encyclopedia) IbnSina-Wrote the Canon of Medicine is still one of the most important medical books ever written, and served as the medical authority throughout Europe for 600 years. Among the Canon's contributions to modern medicine was the recognition that tuberculosis is contagious; diseases can spread through water and soil; and a person's emotional health influences his or her physical health. I Science= observation and experimentation to solve problems Math is the basis of all knowledge “al jabr” Astronomy- book, Optics- revolutionized ideas about vision and led to the development of telescopes and microscopes IbnBattuta- Geographer who mapped northern Africa for the Muslims
Muslim Art and Archetecture Only Allah can create life images, so pictures are discouraged in art Woodwork, glass, ceramics and calligraphy flourished Architecture is the greatest example of cultural blending between Muslims, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines
Ornate arches frame the doors of the Koutoubia, Marrakech, Morocco's oldest mosque. Completed in the 12th century, the Koutoubia served as a model for other mosques in the Muslim world.