THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT I. VOTING RIGHTS
15th Amendment (1869) extended the right to vote to all males regardless of race.
JIM CROW LAWS laws that required segregation by race. Segregated Bus Station in Dallas, Texas.
POLL TAX a fee paid in order to vote. Used to discriminate against black voters.
LITERACY TEST a reading test to keep illiterate people from voting, aimed at keeping blacks from voting after the Civil War.
GRANDFATHER CLAUSE a law that exempted voters from the literacy test if they had voted before or if their grandfathers had voted. This ensure that the literacy test did not keep too many illiterate whites from voting.
SUFFRAGE the right to vote.
19TH AMENDMENT (1920) granted women the right to vote. Notable women’s rights leaders: Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
24TH AMENDMENT (1962) abolished the poll tax.
26TH AMENDMENT (1971) extended voting rights to all citizens over 18. Voting age lowered due to the Vietnam War.
THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT II. AFRICAN-AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT refers to the push in the 1950s and 1960s to extend equal treatment and equal to all citizens regardless of color.
13TH AMENDMENT (1866) abolished slavery.
DISCRIMINATION to treat somebody differently (usually we think of being treated worse) because of race, religion, gender, etc.
SEGREGATION a policy of keeping the races separate in public. Different schools for different races, etc.
PLESSY V. FERGUSON (1896) Supreme Court case that ruled that segregation was legal as long as the facilities were “separate but equal.”
BROWN V. TOPEKA BOARD OF EDUCATION (1954) Supreme Court case that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, making segregation in schools illegal. It stated that all schools had to reintegrate (and it eventually was applied to other public facilities as well).
THURGOOD MARSHALL the first black Supreme Court Justice. One of the justices to vote for integration and desegregation.
LITTLE ROCK CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL (1957) 1 Arkansas governor defied the Supreme Court and President Eisenhower by refusing to integrate Little Rock High. He used National Guard troops to turn away 9 African-American students who were supposed to begin attending school in the fall.
LITTLE ROCK CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL (1957) Mobs of angry people swarmed the high school to protest integration. “Ike” stepped in, placed the National Guard under federal control. He then sent more federal troops to Little Rock to escort the “Little Rock Nine” to classes.
W.E.B. DUBOIS famous civil rights leader, the first African-American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard Univ., and the founder of the NAACP.
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLES (NAACP) an organization dedicated to achieving equality for people of all races and ending racial violence in the South.
INTEGRATION The process of putting the races back together in public places Integration in Clinton, TN schools: Dec. 1956.
KOREAN WAR This was the first war in which black and white soldiers served in the same units. Pres. Truman had ordered integration of the Armed Forces in 1948.
VIETNAM WAR The Vietnam War enhanced the push for civil rights and equality in the 1960s as more African-Americans perished in the jungles.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE A term coined by Henry David Thoreau and adopted by many civil rights leaders. It is the process of protesting an injustice or unfair law through non-violent methods.
BOYCOTT refusing to buy goods and services from companies/businesses until they change their policy. A favorite tool of the colonists during the American Revolution and a favorite tool of civil rights leaders even today.
SIT-IN a form of protest in which people go to a segregated business and place an order. If they are refused service, they just sit there until they are served or forced to leave. Makes businesses choose between integrating or having a racial disruption.
MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. One of the most famous civil rights leaders who utilized the concept of civil disobedience. He organized various peaceful marches across the nation, the most famous being the March on Washington where he gave his “I have a dream” speech.
BIRMINGHAM RIOT 1 After being released from jail, MLK organized a non-violent march in Birmingham, AL. Local police arrested over 900 protesters, turned attack dogs on the crowd, used high-pressure firehoses on the crowd, and beat fallen protesters with clubs before dragging them to jail.
BIRMINGHAM RIOT The public watched on T.V. and was appalled at the scene. Soon after, city facilities were desegregated and fair hiring practices implemented.
ROSA PARKS Civil Rights pioneer. She refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a Montgomery, AL bus. She was arrested for breaking segregation laws. This incident touched off Montgomery Bus Boycott.