Homework • Complete the connector activity on the ‘Group Success’ Tab – reviewing the two videos • Complete the ‘Ryder Cup’ article • Questions on Page 203 • Complete the connector activity on the ‘Leadership Tab’
Card Exercise • Need one observer • One group of 3 • 1 person on their own
What is a group? • Page 194 and 195
Evolution of a group - worksheet • Forming – • Storming – • Norming - • Performing - Tuckman (1965)
Cohesion • Cohesion? • Task cohesion? • Social cohesion?
Bootcamp • It takes people from all backgrounds, and from different parts of the country who may have nothing in common. • They are given the same appearance, which identifies them as the same. • The instructor gives them a shared negative experience that will give them something in common. • In one quick experience they become a group.
Measuring cohesion • Observation of behaviour • Sociogram • Questionnaire - The Group Environment Questionnaire
Do cohesive groups win? • There are exceptions - Rodman and Jordan • Desire to win may supersede personal dislikes • task cohesion overcomes social cohesion • Cohesion alone cannot ensure success.
Factors (antecedents) that contribute to cohesion (Carron 1982) • What are the factors that affect group cohesiveness? (4 marks)
Carron’s model explained • Group composition - gender, resources, compatibility, etc. • Group environment - group size, home advantage, etc. • Group structure - positions, status, norms, roles, etc. • Group cohesion - can be task or social • Task - group works to achieve a goal. • Social - group gets on well. • Group processes - communication, co-operation, competition, etc. • Group products - winning, losing, outside of sport - starting a family. • Individual products - personal satisfaction, bonus, etc.
Example of group norms Are you sitting in your ‘normal’ seat? Why do you sit there?
Productivity (Steiner’s Model) Actual Productivity Potential Productivity Process Losses - = If 2 individuals in a tug-of-war team are each able to pull 100kg, their potential productivity is 200kg. However, they will pull less than this, probably around 180kg - because of the inability to coordinate their efforts and/or because each person might expect the other to carry the main load. Therefore there are process losses of 20kg.
Who is going to win?? • Group A will beat Group B if: • Group A possesses greater relevant resources and experiences fewer or equal process losses • Group A possesses equal relevant resources but experiences fewer process losses • Group A possesses less resources but experiences much less process loss
Football example with numbers • If Arsenal’s potential productivity = 90 and Hull City’s potential productivity = 60, Hull can still win. • If Arsenal experience process losses equal to 40, and Hull only lose 5, Hull’s actual productivity will = 55, while Arsenal will = 50. • This is how giant killings happen each year.
Causes of process losses • Process losses are commonly caused by: • Co-ordination losses eg… • Motivational loses eg…
The Ringlemann effect • Ringlemann observed individuals, groups of 2, 3, and 8 people pulling on a rope. • Did 2 people pull twice as hard as 1 person? NO! 1 in a group of 2 pulled on average 93% of the individual score. In groups of 3 it fell to 85%, and groups of 8 to 49%.
Social loafing • “The tendency for individuals to put in less than maximum effort when working as part of a group”. • This is different from the Ringlemann effect. How? • Latane (1979) found that people in groups do not clap as hard as individuals - individual effort is lost in a crowd!
How to beat social loafing and the Ringlemann effect! • Identify individual contribution - individual playing statistics - this be detrimental to cohesion • Increase peer pressure • Improve group co-ordination skills (set plays) • Select ‘team players’ • Give more responsibility / set individual roles / targets
What else can coaches do? • Limit process losses. • Ensure that players are clear about their roles within the team. • Establish clear team rules and expectations. • Encourage social cohesion, but do not expect everyone to socialize together. • Democracy increases cohesion - allow the team to make some decisions. • Team building exercises.
Summary • A group is 2 or more individuals working towards a common goal. • Group cohesion can be related to the task or to social relationships. • The Ringlemann effect and social loafing explain how some groups under-perform.
‘Team’ talks • Team talks are open only to group members. • As such they bring the group together. • Some team talks are more effective than others… Compare these examples
What were the differences…? Next week… leadership