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Child Development 3-12Part I: Ages 3 to 5Oklahoma Cooperative Extension ServiceCore In-Service February 5, 2010 9:00-11:00 a.m. Debbie Richardson, Ph.D. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University
Introduction • Welcome • Centra Instructions • Overview of In-service • Resource Materials
In-Service Objective Extension Educators will be able to describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of 3 to 5 year-old children including physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development.
Domains of Development Physical Emotional CognitiveSocial • All areas are developing at the same time. • They are related and influence each other. • Development may not be even in all domains. • Important to respect each child as individual.
Physical Domain • Changes in body size & proportions • Appearance • Brain development • Nervous system’s coordination of perception and movement • Senses • Motor capacities • Physical health • Dexterity • Comfort with one’s body as it changes and matures
Cognitive Domain • Mental processes • Thinking, perception, reasoning • Intellectual abilities • Academic & everyday knowledge/skills • Attention • Memory • Concept development • Problem solving • Imagination • Creativity • Language
Emotional and Social Domains • Emotions & emotional communication • Self-understanding • Ability to manage one’s own feelings • Knowledge about other people • Social & interpersonal skills • Interactions with others; involvement in social groups • Friendships and intimate relationships • Moral reasoning • Behavior • Personal traits
theories and frameworks of development • A theory of child development is a belief system about how and why children grow, learn, and behave as they do. • Grow out of efforts to make sense of scientific observations; research tests and supports hypotheses. • Schools of thought, paradigms, perspectives • Different theoretical frameworks are useful for understanding different areas of behavior.
Physical Development Ages 3-5
MaturationistGesell • Most of what children become is inherited at birth. • Behaviors simply unfold as children mature with age. • Some characteristics of children are genetically determined at birth (i.e. interpersonal styles, temperament). • Environment plays a minor role. • Typical growth and development patterns –developmental milestones when certain characteristics could be expected to emerge. • Universal sequential steps.
Body Growth • At age 3 - about 25 to 44 lbs. and 34” to 43” • Height: adds 2”-3” per year • Weight: adds about 4-5 lbs. per year • Develops taller, leaner appearance • Length of skull increases slightly • Jaws enlarge • At age 3, has all 20 primary teeth • Face becomes larger and features more distinct
Physical Development Large muscle/motor Fine muscle/motor
Physical Activity • Inactive preschoolers are 4 times more likely than active peers to gain body fatness as they enter first grade. • Guidelines for preschoolers: (Nat’l Association for Sport & Physical Education) • At least 1 hour of daily structured physical activity • 1-3 hours of daily unstructured physical activity • Not sedentary for more than 1 hour at a time except when sleeping • Indoor & outdoor areas for large muscle activities
Eating • Eating less • Pickier • Involve children in mealtimes
Sleep for Preschoolers • Typically 10-12 hrs/night • Naps decrease • Difficulty falling asleep & waking up during night canbe common • Less sleep → More behavior problems • Development of imagination may result in nighttime fears & nightmares • Sleepwalking & sleep terrors peak at this stage • Maintain a regular and consistent sleep schedule • Relaxing bedtime routine that ends in child’s room • Same sleeping environment every night, in a cool, quiet and dark room without TV
Brain/Nervous System Development • 90% of adult brain size by age 6 • Activity peak at age 4 • Synaptic pruning • Most rapid growth in frontal lobe area responsible for planning & organization of new actions, behavior, motor control, regulation of emotions, maintaining attention • Senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, & taste fully developed. • Lateralization continues • Handedness • Eye preference
Cognitive Development Ages 3-5
Cognitive Development Piaget Preoperational Phase: 2-4 years • Rapid increase in language • Can’t yet perform mental operations • Egocentrism in language and perceptions • Beginning symbolic rather than simple motor play • Use symbols and internal thought to solve problems but dominated by perception • Represent objects beyond immediate view • Thinking tied to concrete objects and “here & now” • Difficult to conceptualize time • Errors understanding cause & effect; fooled by appearance • Irreversibility • Thinking influenced by fantasy, the way he'd like things to be • Assumes others see situations from his viewpoint • Changes information input to fit his ideas
Cognitive Development PiagetIntuitive Phase: 4-7 years • Speech becomes more social, less egocentric • Has intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas, yet still tends to focus attention on one aspect of an object while ignoring others • Concepts formed are crude and irreversible • Easy to believe in magical; reality not firm • Perceptions dominate judgment • In moral-ethical realm, unable to show principles underlying best behavior • Rules undeveloped; only uses simple do's & don'ts imposed by authority
SocioculturalVygotsky • Children’s understanding of world is acquired through language, problem-solving, interactions, play. • Learning leads to development; active, internal construction of knowledge through action. • Must take into account cultural influences. • Learning is a social process in which teachers, adults, and other children form supportive “scaffolding” on which a child can gradually master new skills (e.g. asking questions, prompting). • Zone of proximal development – when a solution to a problem is just beyond the child’s ability level.
Social-Cognitive Learning Bandura • Behavior is learned through observation & imitation. • Behavioral change is largely a social process. • Importance of cognition, thinking – children’s ability to listen, remember, and abstract general rules from complex sets of observed behavior affects their imitation and learning. • Strong emphasis on how children think about themselves and other people.
Thinking & Learning Increases in: • Curiosity • Cause & effect experimentation • Attention • Planning skills • Memory skills • Problem-solving skills HANDS-ON learning is KEY! Knowledge & skills are acquired by “doing”
More Thinking • Trouble thinking about two aspects of the same problem • Thinking based on observation and concrete experience • Increasing understanding of: • spatial concepts (up/down, over/under) • time concepts (today, yesterday, tomorrow) • ability to sort things by category (food, animals, flowers)
Communication & Language • Rapidly expanding vocabulary • learn average 50 new words per month • Understand more words than can speak • Age 3 – use about 1,200 words • Age 5 – use about 2,000+ words • Increasingly complex sentences and conversations • Increasing use of correct grammar • Making up and telling stories • Improved listening skills • Asks why/what/who/how come • Develop ability to think aloud or talk to themselves
Social & Emotional Development Ages 3-5
Psychosocial DevelopmentErikson • Basic Trust Vs. Mistrust (Hope)Infancy through 1 to 2 years To learn others can be trusted to satisfy basic needs. • Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt (Will) About 18 mo./2 yrs. to 3½ yrs To develop sense of self-sufficiency in satisfying one’s needs. • Initiative Vs. Guilt (Purpose) About 3 ½ to 6 years Feel free to act, create, express self creatively, and to take risks.
3 Years • Can sit and listen to stories for up to 10 min. without bothering others • More aware of others’ feelings & shows concern • Can follow brief instructions, accept suggestions • Can make simple choices • Little reasoning ability – does not relate actions to results • Express intense feelings • Fears • Understands taking turns, but not always willing • Not capable of sharing • May struggle with adults • Friendly and eager to please • Enjoys talking & conversation • Enjoys playing with peers • Joins in simple games and group activities • Enjoys make-believe play
4 Years • Delights in silliness & humor • “Bathroom” talk; shock words • Tests limits • May be bossy, tattle, brag, stretch truth, rough, impatient • Increasing self-regulation of behaviors & emotions • Fears may persist • Sense of identity – self, sexuality, ethnicity, etc. • Cooperates with others • Still working at taking turns • Makes friends with peers; may have best friend • May have imaginary friend • Enjoys make-believe play • Participates in group activities • Doesn’t like being left out • Seeks adult approval • Wants to try things by self • Can follow rules, do’s/don’ts”
5 Years • Can be empathetic • Understands power of rejection • Likes to help with chores and feel important • Boasts of accomplishments; likes praise, wants to please • Can sit and pay attention for 15-20 min. • Likes to act like grown-ups, serious, demands • Affectionate and caring toward others • Enjoys friendships; has 1-2 special friends; same-sex • Understands sharing toys • Takes turns but still may not be willing • Generally follows adults’ directions; cooperates with requests • Wants to be “good”, yet unable to admit wrongdoing • Doesn’t always tell truth
Related Issues Ages 3-5
Child Care & Preschool • Quality preschools and early learning centers are linked to positive social and academic outcomes • Head Start • Oklahoma 4-year old Pre-K
School Readiness • Ready to learn • Much more than academics of knowing alphabet and counting • Physical abilities – large & fine muscle skills • Language skills • Self-control • Social skills • Well-being • Desire to learn
OK Kindergarten Teachers Survey about School Entry 1,213 surveys 2006-2007 30% of students not performing at K level 16% of students not performing based on social & emotional development 72% indicated delays in social & emotional development somewhat or very often: • ability to follow instructions • persisting on a task • responding to solutions for conflict • playing cooperatively • identifying & regulating emotions • Participating in social conversations
School Readiness “The ability of a child to be fully engaged in the classroom is also affected by their social and emotional health, including getting along with others, following instructions, and regulating emotions and behaviors” (SmartStart Oklahoma). Studies also suggest that “the emotional, social and behavioral competence of young children…predict their academic performance in first grade, over and above their cognitive skills and family backgrounds” (Raver & Knitzer, 2002).
Positive social skills Research suggests… • Importance of achieving minimal social competence by age 6 • Can lead to development of positive peer relationships, acceptance and friendships • Reduces later risk behaviors and social problems • Healthy social development ≠ being social butterfly
Facilitating Social & Emotional Development Parents/caregivers: • are physically & emotionally responsive, sensitive • encourage children to engage & interact with variety of people and objects in everyday activities • help children feel accepted • assist children in learning to communicate and get along with others • encourage feelings of empathy and mutual respect among children and adults • Provide accessible toys and play materials that child experiences as challenging & engaging
Importance of Play • Play is a child’s way of learning and discovery • Play is essential – experience is the teacher • Exploration facilitates understanding how world works • Learn to master skills such as: use symbols, language, communicate, higher levels of thinking, flexible problem-solving, organizing, planning, social skills • Advances physical development, dexterity, coordination • Imaginative play - pretending • Work things out through trial and error • Reduces tension & stress; express emotions • Play is a process, not a product
TV/Media 3 to 6-8 Year Olds • Sensitive to stimulation and modeling • Can be swayed by how things appear rather than how things really are; Can’t filter out the negative • Generally judge characters or actions as “real” simply due to observing through TV’s “magic window” • Often believe in magical, supernatural creatures & powers • Can recognize “good” and “bad” characters • Sensory, emotional, & physical deprivation and/or overstimulation can occur • Does not offer opportunities for active play and interactive exploration • Readily imitate aggressive or violent characters
Gender Differencesin Preschoolers • Identify themselves as male or female • Tend to judge others’ genders based on superficial characteristics (e.g., hair, stereotypical male/female tasks) • Differences in behavior may be apparent • Nature & nurture influence • Boys are hard-wired to enjoy spatial-mechanical play – enjoy large space to run, trucks, tools, weapons • Girls have higher levels of hormone oxytocin encouraging love and care for dolls • Relate to peers differently – rough-housing vs. relationship building; object-oriented vs. person-related aggression • Boys don’t hear as well as girls • Girls verbal skills develop earlier • Girls tend to use all senses; boys rely primarily on visual cues
psychosexual developmentFreud A particular body region is the focus of sensual satisfactions. • Oral– birth to age 1: mouth, tongue, gums; emotional attachment to person providing satisfactions (i.e. feeding) • Anal – 1 to 3 years: control and self-control (i.e. elimination, tolieting) • Phallic – 3 to 6 years: derive pleasure from genital stimulation; interested in physical differences between the sexes; identify with same-sex parent
Sexuality Curious and interested in: • Where babies come from • Exploring other children’s and adults’ bodies and differences between children and adults • Playing “doctor” and pretending to be mommy/daddy are common • Genital touching increases, especially if tired or upset • 3-4 year-olds still may be concerned about bowel movements and urination • Around age 4, girls may develop more intense attachment to father and boys to mother • Begin to have sense of modesty and understand difference between public and private behavior
Wrap-up • Watch video clips and review resource materials • In-service evaluation • Next Session on Ages 6-9: Friday, Feb. 12, 9–11am • Child Care & Early Childhood Education in-service: April 16 in Stillwater