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Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) USDA-Forest Service USDA-Cooperative State Research Education & Extension Service IPM Regional Centers National Plant Diagnostic Network USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Overview. Introduction to PRED History of P. ramorum

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    1. Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect(PRED)USDA-Forest ServiceUSDA-Cooperative State Research Education & Extension ServiceIPM Regional CentersNational Plant Diagnostic NetworkUSDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    2. Overview Introduction to PRED History of P. ramorum Symptoms and look-alikes Regulations Sample collection and handling

    3. History outline Status in North American forests Status in Europe Status in North American landscapes and nurseries

    4. Marin County, CA (north of San Francisco) Photo: Marin County Fire Department

    5. Marin County, CA (north of San Francisco), 2000 Photo: Marin County Fire Department

    6. Phytophthora ramorum Sporangia releasing zoospores Phytophthora ramorum in culture Photo: UC Davis & UC Berkeley Chlamydospores

    7. Phytophthora species Photo: William Fry, Cornell University

    8. Phytophthora ramorum infection on the leaves of California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) Photo: Joseph O’Brien, USDA-Forest Service

    9. Two sets of symptoms caused byPhytophthora ramorum Sudden Oak Death Red oak group hosts and tanoak Stem lesions beneath the bark May bleed or ooze Can kill adult plants Phytophthora ramorum Foliar Blight Non-oak hosts Spots and blotches on leaves Shoot dieback Can kill juvenile plants, occasionally mature plants

    10. Photo: Mike McWilliams, ODF

    11. Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University

    12. P. ramorum confirmations in forests Map from www.suddenoakdeath.org Kelly, UC-Berkeley

    13. Map: USDA- Forest Service

    14. European garden & nursery finds Phytophthora ramorum infection on rhododendron in Europe Photo: Hans DeGruyter, Netherlands Plant Protection Institute

    15. Infected trees in Europe Quercus rubra Fagus sylvatica Photo: DEFRA

    16. Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University

    17. Trace-forward & trace-backinvestigations Trace forwards = to the nurseries where stock was shipped TO Trace backs = to the nursery where stock was shipped FROM

    18. Phytophthora ramorum national survey • Most states have started or completed their surveys • Over 3000 nurseries / garden centers have been surveyed • Over 50,000 samples have been taken • As of October 2004, this survey has identified 15 confirmed finds in 7 states: California, Oregon, Washington, Maryland, Oklahoma, New Jersey and Virginia

    19. Photo: Jonathan Jones, APHIS, PPQ

    20. Distribution of infected nursery stock from individual nurseries Map: USDA, APHIS, PPQ

    21. Trace-forwards and positive detections across the U.S. July 2004 Map: USDA, APHIS, PPQ

    22. Symptoms & look-alikes • Sudden Oak Death on oak hosts • Symptoms on other hosts • Screening questions at the NCIPM website (www.ncipm.org/sod): • focus on recently purchased (or near recently purchased) camellia, kalmia, lilac, pieris, rhododendron, or viburnum

    23. Symptoms caused by P. ramorum differ on different hosts • True oaks (Quercus spp.) • Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) • Chestnut (Castanea) [Europe only] • Beech (Fagus) [Europe only] Sudden Oak Deathaffects members of the oak family (Fagaceae)

    24. P. ramorum on coast live oak Photo: Pavel Svihra, UC Cooperative Extension

    25. ‘Bleeding’ canker on tree trunk ‘Bleeding’ or oozing on the bark Not associated with cracks in bark or insect holes Usually on the lower 6 ft. of tree trunks Photo: Garbelotto lab, UC Berkeley

    26. “bleeding” Phytophthora ramorum Photos: Mike McWilliams, ODF & Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Dept. of Conservation

    27. Phytophthora ramorum Cankers (in inner bark) are surrounded by a black line Photo: Dave Rizzo, UC Davis

    28. Phytophthora ramorum outer bark inner bark Photo: Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Department of Conservation

    29. Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum outer bark inner bark Bleeding canker caused by Armillaria Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service

    30. Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum outer bark inner bark Bleeding canker caused by inner-bark boring insect Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service

    31. Similar symptoms – submit sample outer bark inner bark Bleeding canker caused by Inonotus hispidus Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service

    32. Other common diseases & injuries • Bacterial wetwood • Boring insects • Mechanical injury • Fungi

    33. Pyracantha Honeysuckle Yew Douglas-fir Grand fir Coast redwood Camellia Rhododendron Viburnum Pieris Mountain laurel Lilac On other plant hosts, P. ramorum causes symptoms of foliar blight

    34. Symptoms on camellia Photos: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture & Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

    35. Symptoms on camellia Photo: Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

    36. Symptoms on camellia • Symptoms can be subtle • Look for irregular-shaped brown lesions on the leaves • Sometimes only the tips of leaves are brown • Look for lower leaves that have fallen off Photo: Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

    37. Similar symptoms – submit sample Sun scorch on camellia Photo: Carrie Harmon, University of Florida

    38. Similar symptoms – submit sample Cold injury on camellia Photo: Richard Regan, Oregon State University

    39. P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Shoot dieback Foliar blight Foliar blight Rhododendron macrophyllum Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University

    40. P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Rhododendron macrophyllum Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University

    41. P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Photo: Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Dept. of Conservation

    42. P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Rhododendron ‘Unique’ Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University

    43. P. ramorum symptoms on eastern native rhododendrons (inoculation trials) Photo: Paul Tooley, USDA-ARS

    44. Similar symptoms – submit sample Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora syringae Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University

    45. Similar symptoms – submit sample Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora species Photo: Mike Benson, NCSU

    46. Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Phytophthora root rot - not caused by P. ramorum Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University

    47. Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Sun scorch Gray blight can develop on sun scorched rhododendron leaves Photo: Rich Regan, Oregon State University

    48. Symptoms on pieris Pieris japonica Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture

    49. P. ramorum symptoms on pieris Pieris japonica Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture

    50. P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum Viburnum x bodnantense ‘’Dawn’ Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture