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Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) USDA-Forest Service USDA-Cooperative State Research Education & Extension Service IPM Regional Centers National Plant Diagnostic Network USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Overview. Introduction to PRED History of P. ramorum

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Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect(PRED)USDA-Forest ServiceUSDA-Cooperative State Research Education & Extension ServiceIPM Regional CentersNational Plant Diagnostic NetworkUSDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

overview
Overview

Introduction to PRED

History of P. ramorum

Symptoms and look-alikes

Regulations

Sample collection and handling

history outline
History outline

Status in North American forests

Status in Europe

Status in North American landscapes and nurseries

slide4

Marin County, CA (north of San Francisco)

Photo: Marin County Fire Department

slide5

Marin County, CA (north of San Francisco), 2000

Photo: Marin County Fire Department

slide6

Phytophthora ramorum

Sporangia releasing zoospores

Phytophthora ramorum in culture

Photo: UC Davis & UC Berkeley

Chlamydospores

slide7

Phytophthora species

Photo: William Fry, Cornell University

slide8

Phytophthora ramorum infection on the leaves of California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica)

Photo: Joseph O’Brien, USDA-Forest Service

two sets of symptoms caused by phytophthora ramorum
Two sets of symptoms caused byPhytophthora ramorum

Sudden Oak Death

Red oak group hosts and tanoak

Stem lesions beneath the bark

May bleed or ooze

Can kill adult plants

Phytophthora ramorum Foliar Blight

Non-oak hosts

Spots and blotches on leaves

Shoot dieback

Can kill juvenile plants, occasionally mature plants

slide12

P. ramorum confirmations in forests

Map from www.suddenoakdeath.org

Kelly, UC-Berkeley

slide14

European garden & nursery finds

Phytophthora ramorum infection on rhododendron in Europe

Photo: Hans DeGruyter, Netherlands Plant Protection Institute

slide15

Infected trees in Europe

Quercus rubra

Fagus sylvatica

Photo: DEFRA

trace forward trace back investigations
Trace-forward & trace-backinvestigations

Trace forwards = to the nurseries where stock was shipped TO

Trace backs = to the nursery where stock was shipped FROM

phytophthora ramorum national survey
Phytophthora ramorum national survey
  • Most states have started or completed their surveys
  • Over 3000 nurseries / garden centers have been surveyed
  • Over 50,000 samples have been taken
  • As of October 2004, this survey has identified 15 confirmed finds in 7 states: California, Oregon, Washington, Maryland, Oklahoma, New Jersey and Virginia
symptoms look alikes
Symptoms & look-alikes
  • Sudden Oak Death on oak hosts
  • Symptoms on other hosts
  • Screening questions at the NCIPM website (www.ncipm.org/sod):
      • focus on recently purchased (or near recently purchased) camellia, kalmia, lilac, pieris, rhododendron, or viburnum
slide23

Symptoms caused by P. ramorum differ on different hosts

  • True oaks (Quercus spp.)
  • Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus)
  • Chestnut (Castanea) [Europe only]
  • Beech (Fagus) [Europe only]

Sudden Oak Deathaffects members of the oak family (Fagaceae)

slide24

P. ramorum on coast live oak

Photo: Pavel Svihra, UC Cooperative Extension

bleeding canker on tree trunk
‘Bleeding’ canker on tree trunk

‘Bleeding’ or oozing on the bark

Not associated with cracks in bark or insect holes

Usually on the lower 6 ft. of tree trunks

Photo: Garbelotto lab, UC Berkeley

slide26

“bleeding”

Phytophthora ramorum

Photos: Mike McWilliams, ODF & Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Dept. of Conservation

slide27

Phytophthora ramorum

Cankers (in inner bark) are surrounded by a black line

Photo: Dave Rizzo, UC Davis

slide28

Phytophthora ramorum

outer bark

inner bark

Photo: Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Department of Conservation

slide29

Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum

outer bark

inner bark

Bleeding canker caused by Armillaria

Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service

slide30

Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum

outer bark

inner bark

Bleeding canker caused by inner-bark boring insect

Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service

slide31

Similar symptoms – submit sample

outer bark

inner bark

Bleeding canker caused by Inonotus hispidus

Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service

slide32

Other common diseases & injuries

  • Bacterial wetwood
  • Boring insects
  • Mechanical injury
  • Fungi
slide33
Pyracantha

Honeysuckle

Yew

Douglas-fir

Grand fir

Coast redwood

Camellia

Rhododendron

Viburnum

Pieris

Mountain laurel

Lilac

On other plant hosts, P. ramorum causes symptoms of foliar blight

slide34

Symptoms on camellia

Photos: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture & Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

slide35

Symptoms on camellia

Photo: Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

slide36

Symptoms on camellia

  • Symptoms can be subtle
  • Look for irregular-shaped brown lesions on the leaves
  • Sometimes only the tips of leaves are brown
  • Look for lower leaves that have fallen off

Photo: Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

slide37

Similar symptoms – submit sample

Sun scorch on camellia

Photo: Carrie Harmon, University of Florida

slide38

Similar symptoms – submit sample

Cold injury on camellia

Photo: Richard Regan, Oregon State University

slide39

P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron

Shoot dieback

Foliar blight

Foliar blight

Rhododendron macrophyllum

Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University

slide40

P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron

Rhododendron macrophyllum

Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University

slide41

P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron

Photo: Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Dept. of Conservation

slide42

P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron

Rhododendron ‘Unique’

Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University

slide43

P. ramorum symptoms on eastern native rhododendrons

(inoculation trials)

Photo: Paul Tooley, USDA-ARS

slide44

Similar symptoms – submit sample

Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora syringae

Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University

slide45

Similar symptoms – submit sample

Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora species

Photo: Mike Benson, NCSU

slide46

Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum

Phytophthora root rot - not caused by P. ramorum

Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University

slide47

Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum

Sun scorch

Gray blight can develop on sun scorched rhododendron leaves

Photo: Rich Regan, Oregon State University

slide48

Symptoms on pieris

Pieris japonica

Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture

slide49

P. ramorum symptoms on pieris

Pieris japonica

Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture

slide50

P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum

Viburnum x bodnantense ‘’Dawn’

Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture

slide51

P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum

Viburnum x bodnantense ‘Dawn’

Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture

slide52

P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum

Viburnum plicatum tomentosum ‘Mariesii’

Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University

slide53

P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum

stem canker

Photo: Sabine Werres, Institut für Pflanzenschutz im Gartenbau, Germany

slide55

Similar symptoms – submit sample

Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)

Photo: Robert Linderman, USDA-ARS

slide56

Similar symptoms – submit sample

Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)

Photo: Peter Angwin, USDA-Forest Service

p ramorum symptoms on lilac
P. ramorum symptoms on lilac

Photo: Alexandra Schlenzig, Scottish Agricultural Science Agency

slide58

Similar symptoms – submit sample

Bacterial blighton lilac

Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University

p ramorum symptoms on conifers
P. ramorum symptoms on conifers

Grand fir

Douglas-fir

Photo: Santa Clara Co. (CA) Agriculture Dept. & Dave Rizzo, UC Davis

regulations
Regulations
  • Federal and State quarantines
  • Domestic Regulated Materials
  • Federal P. ramorum quarantine program goals
phytophthora ramorum regulations quarantines
Phytophthora ramorumregulations & quarantines
  • Federal quarantines –
    • prevent movement between states
  • State quarantines –
    • prevent movement within a state
    • prevent introductions
phytophthora ramorum domestic regulated materials
Phytophthora ramorumdomestic regulated materials
  • Nursery stock
  • Forest stock
  • Wood
  • Bark
  • Soil
  • Wreaths & greenery
phytophthora ramorum host list
Phytophthora ramorum host list

tanoak horse-chestnut southern red oak

canyon live oak sweet chestnut northern red oak

coast live oak European beech Holm oak

California black oak drooping leucothoe wood rose

Shreve oak European turkey oak Viburnum varieties

bigleaf maple toyon madrone

coffeeberry cascara Formosa firethorn

California buckeye coast redwood huckleberry

salmonberry manzanita honeysuckle

Western starflower grand fir poison oak

California hazelnut Douglas-fir Scotch heather

mountain laurel European yew witch-hazel

Pieris varieties strawberry tree Victorian box

Camellia species California wood fern lilac

European yew Pacific yew rhododendrons/azaleas

false Solomon’s seal winter’s bark sweet bay laurel

goat willow Andrew’s clintonia bead lily

California bay laurel/pepperwood

Current as of August 16, 2004

federal p ramorum quarantine program goals
Federal P. ramorum quarantine program goals
  • Prevent the artificial spread of P. ramorum
  • Take the least restrictive action necessary
  • Determine status of disease, nationwide
  • Keep the regulations current with the science and risk
  • Identify where infected items came from and went to
  • Clean up infested nurseries and garden centers
p ramorum procedures
P. ramorum procedures

Review of material just presented

Goal of PRED

Overview of the program

What to do…

sample referral and submission
Sample referral and submission
  • In some states, only the State or federal regulatory officials will be collecting the specimens.
  • Contact your county extension agent or supervisor to find out who is authorized to collect suspect samples in your county.
sample referral criteria
Sample referral criteria
  • Plants likely to be infected by Phytophthora ramorum (as indicated by the screening questionnaire):
    • Affected plant is on host list and purchased since 2002
    • Affected plant is near a recently purchased host plant
    • Symptoms are consistent with Phytophthora ramorum
  • Screening questions at the NCIPM website: (www.ncipm.org/sod)
communication
Communication
  • Submit the suspect sample to:
    • County Extension Specialist/Farm Advisor
    • Master Gardener
    • Other state designated representative
  • Avoid alarming behavior. Don’t jump to conclusions.
    • Wait for lab result
    • Maintain confidentiality
if you re asked to collect a sample
If you’re asked to collect a sample
  • Collect leaves that show various stages of symptom development.
  • Take pictures of symptoms and environment.
packaging a sample
Packaging a sample
  • Place sample on a paper towel. Do not wet the towel.
  • Double bag and seal the sample in zippable bags.
  • If shipping, use a crush proof box with seams sealed completely with tape.
  • Be sure to include the sample submission form required by your state.
delivering a sample
Delivering a sample
  • Contact the sample recipient.
  • Samples must be fresh and in good condition.
  • Rapid delivery is critical (no Friday shipments).
sampling reminders
Sampling reminders
  • The accuracy of a disease diagnosis can only be as good as the sample and information provided.
  • Sample must be representative of symptoms and severity in the field and must contain the right material.
sampling reminders74
Sampling reminders
  • Sanitation
    • disposal of material
    • containment while shipping
    • clean tools
  • Chain of custody
    • restrict access to sample
    • make sure sample collection location is retraceable
diagnostics laboratory tests

ELISA

Plating

PCR

Diagnostics: laboratory tests
  • There are three detection methods:
    • Antibody test (ELISA)
    • Plating on selective media
    • DNA (PCR)
  • Relatively expensive
  • Time consuming

Photo: Natalie Goldberg, New Mexico State University

where to go for more information
Where to go for more information
  • APHIS: www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ispm/sod
  • California Oak Mortality Task Force:www.suddenoakdeath.org
  • NCIPM:www.ncipm.org/sod
acknowledgments
Authors

Jennifer Parke

Susan Frankel

Janice Alexander

Carla Thomas

Reviewers

Kitty Caldwell Bill Hoffman

Eugene Erickson Steve Oak

Jonathan Jones Melodie Putnam

Natalie Goldberg Susan Ratcliffe

Everett Hansen David Rizzo

Carrie Harmon Stacy Scott

John Hartman

Acknowledgments
questions
Questions???
  • We have assembled a group of experts to answer your questions:
      • David Rizzo, University of California, Davis
      • Jonathan Jones, APHIS
      • Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University
      • Kerry Britton, USDA-Forest Service
      • Carla Thomas, NPDN
      • Susan Ratcliffe, NCIPM