Serving It Safe Jean Weese, Ph.D. R.D. Extension Food Safety Specialist Emily Campbell, Janice Hall, Susan Hill, Bridgette Griffin, Janet Johnson, Angela Treadaway, Kristin Woods Regional Extension Agents Alabama Cooperative Extension System
Introduce Yourself: 1. Name and Job Title 2. School and School District 3. What do you hope to learn during this workshop?
To Ensure Food Safety… Empower employees Help them understand Hold them responsible
Public Health Regulations State and local public health department codes are different than those presented. We will attempt to present the regulations for Alabama
NEW TEMPERATURE DANGER ZONE 41° F - 135° F Danger Zone in the 2005 Food Code 45° F to 140° F Alabama Danger Zone (Alabama will transition into the new Zone but it will be over a 10 year period of time)
Serving It Safe Chapter 1 Food Safety is Top Priority
Foodborne Illness in Alabama - 2003 788 cases Salmonellosis 320 cases Shigellosis 218 cases Giardiasis 186 cases Campylobacteriosis 57 cases Cryptosporidiosis 24 cases Hepatitis A 17 cases E. coli 0157:H7 13 cases Listeriosis Food Safety is a Top Priority
Activity 1 • Could this happen in our foodservice operation? • If “yes”, describe why • If “no”, what food safety measures are in place to prevent such a problem from occurring
“food poisoning” carried by food or water must be diagnosed by a laboratory analysis that identifies the illness. Foodborne Illness
happens when two or more people become ill from eating a common food confirmed when a laboratory analysis shows the source to be a specific food Foodborne Outbreak
3 TYPES OF FOOD CONTAMINANTS • 1. BIOLOGICAL • pathogens spread mostly by foodhandlers • unsanitary facilities and equipment • pests
Contaminants continued…. 2. CHEMICAL -sanitizers, pesticides, detergents, polishes, cleaning agents, caustic chemicals • Train employees • Clear labels and stored away from food • Measure correctly • Use test kits to check concentration • Wash hands afterwards • Wash fresh fruits and vegetables • Monitor pest control operators • Metal containers – use only NSF and UL labeled
Contaminants continued…. 3. PHYSICAL – easily seen and often reported • any foreign objects • dirt, hair, mail polish, insects, glass, staples, bone • Scoop for ice • Store toothpicks, etc. below food • Shields on lights • Clean can openers • Remove staples, etc. in receiving area away from food • Avoid temp equipment fixes that could fall off • Use hair restraints • No nail polish, jewelry • No pencils behind ears • Only approved food containers for storage • Never re-use single use containers
What must be done to keep food safe? • Where does hazard occur in your operation? • How can hazard contaminate food? 3. How do you prevent contamination?
Activity 2 • Where are the hazards?
Think-Pair-Share Food Safety is Top Priority ACTION PLAN – HANDOUT
Serving It Safe Chapter 2 Prevent Foodborne Illness— Understanding Microorganisms
What happens in the body? Harmful microorganisms ingested Period of time Symptoms Laboratory test necessary
Contamination Occurs • Receiving • Preparation and serving • Cross-contamination • Employee to food contact • Unsanitary facilities and equipment • Disease-spreading pests
MAIN CAUSES OF FOODBORNE ILLINESS • Poor personal hygiene • Time/temperature abuse • Cross-contamination
Practice Good Personal Hygiene • Clean body • Clean clothing • Clean hands • Proper glove use • Establish good personal hygiene procedures
Control Time & Temperature • Temperature danger zone: 45° - 140°F • Not to exceed 4 hours, except cool-down • Document temperatures & time • Includes receiving, storage, preparation, holding, serving, cooling, and reheating • Pass food through danger zone quickly
Control Time & Temperature Chilling Food Alabama Code 140° to 70° within 2 hours 70° to 45° within 4 hours
Use the Tools! • Food thermometers • Only way to judge internal temperature • Common types • Bi-metallic stemmed thermometer • Digital thermometer • Easily accessible for employees
DETERMINE TEMP WHEN FOOD IS: • Received • In Hot-holding Cabinets • Being Cooked • On Service Line • Cooled for Later Cold Storage • Leftover • Reheated
Use Thermometers Correctly! • Clean and sanitize after every use. • Insert into center, thickest part; to cover sensor • Wait till rests; 15 seconds • Take three measurements Calibrate Routinely
Calibration of Thermometer Two Methods: • Ice-Point Method • Boiling-Point Method
Hands-On Activity • Calibrate a Food Thermometer Using the Ice-Point Method
Use the Tools! • How to use a food thermometer
Clean and sanitize between uses Calibrate them regularly Insert thermometer stem or probe into thickest part of product Wait steady reading before recording temperature Never use mercury or spirit-filled glass thermometers to check food temperature How to Use a Thermometer
Cross - Contamination • Hand to food • Food to food • Equipment to food
Prevent Hand-to-Food Cross-contamination • Wash hands correctly and often • Cover cuts, sores, wounds • Avoid nail polish and artificial nails • Avoid jewelry • Use single-use gloves correctly
WASH HANDS BEFORE….. • Beginning food preparation • Putting on disposable gloves • Serving customers
WASH HANDS AFTER….. • Upon arriving at work and after breaks • Leaving restroom & again at kitchen • Eating, drinking, smoking, chewing • Using phone or handkerchief • Handling inventory or raw food • Touching or scratching body • Coughing or Sneezing
AND ALSO AFTER….. • Clearing or cleaning tables • Cleaning dirty plates and utensils • Handling garbage • Handling money • Touching dirty aprons or surfaces • Using cleaning utensils
Gloves Are for single-use only Must never replace hand washing Should be right for the task Must be safe, durable, and clean Must fit properly – buy variety MUST BE USED PROPERLY 4-10
Change your gloves….. As soon as soiled or torn Before beginning a different task After handling raw meat Before handling cooked or ready-to-eat
Prevent Hand-to-Food Cross-contamination How to Wash Hands Correctly
Prevent Food-to-Food Cross-contamination • Store raw foods below cooked foods. • Do not mix leftover food with fresh food. • Wash all fresh produce in cold running water. • Do not prepare raw meat and raw fruits or vegetables on the same surface.
Cross Contamination: Equipment Issues Assign specific equipment to specific types of food. 5-3
Prevent Equipment-to-Food Cross-contamination • Properly clean and sanitize equipment before use and before being used to prepare another food
Prevent Equipment-to-Food Cross-contamination • Designate Separate Work Areas • Change to clean utensils when replenishing steam table. • Clean & Sanitize after each use • Equipment • Work Surfaces • Utensils • Use Specific Containers with Clear Labels • Never Re-use single-use containers or wraps
Prevent Equipment-to-Food Cross-contamination • Sanitize wiping cloths • Rinse & Store in clean sanitizing solution after each use • Check concentration frequently
Preventing Foodborne Illness • Practice good personal hygiene • Control time and temperature • Prevent cross-contamination
Responsibilities of Foodservice Manager • Knowing and implementing regulations • Solving problems of noncompliance • Maintaining current knowledge • Training employees • Holding employees responsible
Responsibilities of Foodservice Employees • Learning about food safety • Following food safety requirements and guidelines
What To Do? • How should the foodservice manager respond if symptoms of foodborne illness are reported to the foodservice?
Proper Managerial Response • Keep cool and calm! • Seek guidance • Stop serving any suspect food • Keep samples • Report to & cooperate with health officials • Report all gathered information • Only health professionals to give advice • Direct media to school district reps • Only designated personnel notifies parents
Proper Managerial Response • Gather information from your own kitchen • Determine handling before and during prep • Interview employees • Have documentation available • Keep names and phone numbers of officials to be contacted.