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Chapter 16 – Southern Europe. Section Notes. Video. Impact of the Olympics on Athens. Physical Geography Greece Italy Spain and Portugal. Maps. Southern Europe: Political Southern Europe: Physical Europe: Climate Greece: Population Spain and Portugal: Languages Southern Europe

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Chapter 16 – Southern Europe

Section Notes

Video

Impact of the Olympics on Athens

Physical Geography

Greece

Italy

Spain and Portugal

Maps

Southern Europe: Political

Southern Europe: Physical

Europe: Climate

Greece: Population

Spain and Portugal: Languages

Southern Europe

Spain and Portugal: Climate

Close-up

Mediterranean Climate

World Almanac

Per Capita GDP of Greece

Images

Geography

Italian History: The Renaissance

Naples

Moorish Tower

Focus on Culture: Flamenco

Quick Facts

Chapter 16 Visual Summary

physical geography
Physical Geography
  • The Big Idea
  • The peninsulas of Southern Europe have rocky terrains and sunny, mild climates.
  • Main Ideas
  • Southern Europe’s physical features include rugged mountains and narrow coastal plains.
  • The region’s climate and resources support such industries as agriculture, fishing, and tourism.
main idea 1 southern europe s physical features include rugged mountains and narrow coastal plains
Southern Europe is largely made up of three large peninsulas.

Iberian Peninsula

Italian Peninsula

Balkan Peninsula

Southern Europe also includes many islands. Some, such as Crete and Sicily, are very large.

Because the peninsulas and islands all border on the Mediterranean Sea, the region of Southern Europe is also called Mediterranean Europe.

Main Idea 1:Southern Europe’s physical features include rugged mountains and narrow coastal plains.
features of southern europe
Landforms

Rugged mountain ranges

Pyrenees

Apennines

Alps

Pindus

Islands

Coastal plains

River valley plains

Water Features

Seas

Mediterranean

Adriatic

Aegean

Ionian

Few large rivers

Tagus

Po

Features of Southern Europe
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Main Idea 2:The region’s climate and resourcessupport such industries asagriculture, fishing, and tourism.

Southern Europe is famous for its pleasant climate.

Most of the region enjoys warm, sunny days and mild nights for most of the year. Little rain falls during the summer, but rain is more common in the winter.

Geographers call the type of climate found in Southern Europe a Mediterranean climate.

industries of southern europe
Industries of Southern Europe
  • The Mediterranean climate is ideal for growing many types of crops.
  • Farmers plant citrus fruits, grapes, olives, wheat, and many other products.

Agriculture

  • The seas of Southern Europe are full of various types of fish and shellfish.
  • Fishing is a profitable industry.

Fishing

  • Millions of tourists visit Southern Europe each year because of its mild climate.
  • Sunny beaches and breathtaking scenery are also tourist attractions.

Tourism

greece
Greece
  • The Big Idea
  • The home of one of the Western world’s oldest civilizations, Greece is trying to reclaim its place as a leading country in Europe.
  • Main Ideas
  • Early in its history, Greece was the home of a great civilization, but it was later ruled by foreign powers.
  • The Greek language, the Orthodox Church, and varied customs have helped shape Greece’s culture.
  • In Greece today, many people are looking for new economic opportunities.
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Main Idea 1:Early in its history, Greece was the home of a great civilization, but it was later ruled by foreign powers.

Greece has been called the birthplace of Western culture.

The ancient Greeks were pioneers in many fields and made great achievements. They created great art, designed amazing buildings, invented new forms of literature, explored many fields of science, and developed democracy.

In the 300s BC Greece became part of Alexander the Great’s empire. As a result, Greek culture spread through Egypt and much of Southwest Asia.

later history of greece
Later History of Greece

Foreign Rulers

  • The Roman Empire conquered and ruled Greece.
  • When the Roman Empire split around 400, Greece became part of the eastern half, the Byzantine Empire.
  • The Muslim Ottoman Turks invaded Greece in the 1300s and 1400s. At that time some elements of Greek culture faded.
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Later History of Greece

Independence

  • Many Greeks were not happy with Turkish rule. In the 1800s they revolted. With help, the Greeks won their freedom and became a monarchy.
  • Greece’s government has changed many times since it won its independence. It is now a democracy.
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Main Idea 2:The Greek language, the Orthodox Church, and varied customs have helped shape Greece’s culture.

Language

  • Greek language
  • One of the oldest languages spoken in Europe
  • Most people belong to the Orthodox Church, a branch of Christianity that dates back to the Byzantine Empire.
  • Religion is very important to most people.

Religion

  • Greek cuisine uses local ingredients such as lamb and olives, plus recipes borrowed from people such as the Italians and Turks.
  • Family is central to Greek culture.

Customs

main idea 3 in greece today many people are looking for new economic opportunities
Life in Urban Greece

About three-fifths of Greece’s population lives in cities.

Athens, the capital, is the largest city. One-third of all people in Greece live there.

Athens is an industrial center.

Industry has led to pollution, which damages the ruins and causes health problems.

Life in Rural Greece

Life in the country is very different from life in the city.

Many people live in isolated mountain villages, as Greeks have for thousands of years.

Rural Greeks grow crops and raise sheep and goats.

Village life often centers around the village square, where people meet to chat and make decisions.

Main Idea 3:In Greece today, many people are looking for new economic opportunities.
the greek economy
Greece’s economy is growing rapidly, but the country faces some challenges to further economic growth.

Few mineral resources

Relatively little farmland

Greece’s shipping industry is one of the world’s most successful. It has one of the largest fleets of shipping vessels in the world.

Tourism is another major industry.

Millions of people visit Greece each year.

Tourist attractions include ancient ruins, beaches, and islands.

The Greek government has worked to increase tourism.

The Greek Economy
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The Big Idea

  • Once the center of a huge empire, Italy is now one of the most prosperous countries in Europe.
  • Main Ideas
  • Italian history can be divided into three periods: ancient Rome, the Renaissance, and unified Italy.
  • Religion and local traditions have helped shape Italy’s culture.
  • Italy today has two distinct economic regions—northern Italy and southern Italy.
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Main Idea 1:Italian history can be divided into three periods: ancient Rome, the Renaissance, and unified Italy.
slide24

Ancient Rome

  • Founded in the 700s BC
  • Formed empire that stretched from Britain to the Persian Gulf
  • Famous for great art, literature, and political ideas
  • Helped spread Christianity
slide25

Renaissance

  • Lasted from about 1350 through the 1500s
  • Period of great creativity that began in Italy and spread through the rest of Europe
  • Saw the creation of some of the world’s greatest works of art and literature
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Unified Italy

  • Italy was not unified as a country until 1861.
  • In the 1920s Mussolini took power as a dictator. He led Italy into World War II.
  • After the war Italy became a democracy.
main idea 2 religion and local traditions have helped shape italy s culture
Most people in Italy belong to the Roman Catholic Church.

In the past, the Catholic Church was the single most important influence in Italian culture.

Main Idea 2:Religion and local traditions have helped shape Italy’s culture.
main idea 2
The pope, the spiritual head of the Roman Catholic Church, lives in Vatican City, an independent state located within the city of Rome.Main Idea 2
main idea 230
The importance of the Catholic Church in Italy can be seen in many ways:

Italian cities are filled with Catholic churches. Rome alone contains hundreds of churches from various periods of history.

Religious holidays and festivals are major events in Italy.

Main Idea 2
italian culture
Italian Culture

Food

  • Olives, tomatoes, rice, and pasta are common.
  • Recipes vary widely from region to region.
  • For example, in the south people often serve pasta with tomato sauces, while in the north they serve creamier sauces.
italian culture32
Italian Culture

Art

  • Italy has been known as a center of the arts for centuries.
  • Italian artists set trends that are followed all over the world.
  • Italy has been home to some of the world’s greatest painters, sculptors, authors, composers, fashion designers, and filmmakers.
main idea 3 italy today has two distinct economic regions northern italy and southern italy
Main Idea 3:Italy today has two distinct economic regions—northern Italy and southern Italy.
main idea 3
Main Idea 3
  • Northern Italy
  • Strong economy
  • Italy’s most fertile farmland is in the Po Valley.
  • Major industrial centers: Milan, Turin, and Genoa
  • Tourists visit many northern cities, such as Florence, Pisa, and Venice.
main idea 335
Main Idea 3
  • Southern Italy
  • Poorer than the north
  • Depends heavily on agriculture
  • Tourists visit the region’s beaches and ruins.
  • Italy’s government is trying to promote industry in the south, especially in the city of Naples.

Italy’s capital, Rome, is in central Italy and has ties to both the north and the south.

spain and portugal
Spain and Portugal
  • The Big Idea
  • Spain and Portugal have rich cultures, stable governments, and growing economies.
  • Main Ideas
  • Over the centuries, Spain and Portugal have been part of many large and powerful empires.
  • The cultures of Spain and Portugal reflect their long histories.
  • Having been both rich and poor in the past, Spain and Portugal today have growing economies.
main idea 1 over the centuries spain and portugal have been part of many large and powerful empires
Main Idea 1:Over the centuries, Spain and Portugal have been part of many large and powerful empires.

Both Phoenicia and Greece founded colonies in Iberia, the peninsula on which Spain and Portugal are located.

Iberia later became part of the Roman Empire.

The Moors, Muslims from North Africa, invaded Iberia after Rome fell. They ruled the area for about 600 years.

By the end of 1400s Christian rulers from Spain and Portugal had banded together to drive the Moors from Iberia.

Spain and Portugal built huge empires that included lands in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.

main idea 2 the cultures of spain and portugal reflect their long histories
Main Idea 2:The cultures of Spain and Portugal reflect their long histories.

Language

  • Most people speak Spanish or Portuguese.
  • Other languages, such as Catalan and Galician, are also spoken in parts of Spain.
  • The Basque people of northern Spain have their own language and customs. Many of them want independence.

Religion

  • Most people in Iberia are Roman Catholic.
  • People gather to celebrate Christian holidays and saints’ festivals.

Music and Art

  • Portuguese fados and Spanish flamenco are popular music styles.
  • Muslim influence can be seen in much Iberian architecture.
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Main Idea 2

Religion

  • Most people in Iberia are Roman Catholic.
  • People gather to celebrate Christian holidays and saints’ festivals.

Music and Art

  • Portuguese fados and Spanish flamenco are popular music styles.
  • Muslim influence can be seen in much Iberian architecture.
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Spain and Portugal were once the wealthiest countries in Europe, thanks to gold and silver from the Americas.

Spain and Portugal did not develop industrial economies like other countries in Europe because they were already rich.

As Spanish and Portuguese colonies became independent, the source of gold and silver disappeared.

Main Idea 3: Having been both rich and poor in the past, Spain and Portugal today have growing economies.
main idea 347
Main Idea 3
  • Because they had not developed industrial economies, Spain and Portugal were unable to compete with other countries. As a result, they became poor.
  • The economies of Spain and Portugal are growing rapidly, largely because of new industries such as tourism.
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Spain Today

  • Spain’s government is a parliamentary monarchy, which means it is ruled by a king with the help of an elected parliament.
  • Manufacturing is a major economic activity.
  • Cities such as Madrid and Barcelona are centers of industry, tourism, and commerce.
slide49

Portugal Today

  • Portugal is a republic with elected leaders.
  • Lisbon, the capital and largest city, is an industrial center.
  • In rural areas, agriculture is still very important to the economy.
  • Portuguese farmers are famous for growing grapes and cork.