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Chapter 25. The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis: War and Revolution. Timeline . Map 25.1: Europe in 1914. The Road to World War I. Nationalism and Internal Dissent Nationalism Liberals claimed that creation of national states would bring peace

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chapter 25

Chapter 25

The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis:

War and Revolution

the road to world war i
The Road to World War I
  • Nationalism and Internal Dissent
    • Nationalism
      • Liberals claimed that creation of national states would bring peace
      • Led to competition instead of cooperation
      • Brinkmanship
    • Internal dissent
      • Ethnic tensions
      • Growing power of Socialist labor movements
  • Militarism
    • Conscription
    • Influence of military leaders
  • The Outbreak of War: The Summer of 1914
    • The effects of the Balkan Wars prior to 1914
    • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife Sophia, June 28, 1914
    • Germany gives “full support” to Austria
    • Russian mobilization
    • Schlieffen Plan 
slide5

THE ROAD TO WAR

IMMEDIATE CAUSES

objectives
OBJECTIVES
  • Identify the rapid train of events or the immediate causes of the Great War
  • Discuss the decisions made or not made by European leaders
  • Discuss how leadership determines the fate of nations
a family feud

Alexandra-German Princess, wife of Nicholas II, grandaughter of Q.V.

Grandsons

Tsar Nicholas II-Russia

r.1894-1917

King George V-GB

r. 1910-1936

Grandson

Wilhelm II-Germany

r. 1888-1918

Others…

Albert I-Belgium Franz Joseph

2nd Cousin Great Uncle

A Family Feud?

Queen Victoria (r. 1837-1901)

“GRANNY”

9 Children

slide8

The Major Players: 1914-17

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Nicholas II [Rus]

Wilhelm II [Ger]

George V [Br]

Victor Emmanuel III [It]

Enver Pasha[Turkey]

Pres. Poincare [Fr]

Franz Josef [A-H]

slide10

LEADERSHIP

  • KING ALBERT / BELGIUM
  • KING PETER I / ALEXANDER I / SERBIA YUGOSLAVIA
  • KING CAROL I / FERDINAND I / ROMANIA
  • KING CONSTANTINE / GREECE
  • TSAR FERDINAND I / BULGARIA
  • EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEPH I / KARL I / AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
  • CZAR NICHOLAS II/ GRAND DUKE MIKHAIL / RUSSIA
  • KING GEORGE V / UNITED KINGDOM
  • KING VITTORIO EMANUELE III / ITALY
  • KAISER WILHELM II/ GERMANY
  • SULTAN MEHMED V / MEHMED VI / OTTOMAN EMPIRE
slide11

FREDERICK III

  • r. 1888 - 99 days
  • Son of Wilhelm I (r. 1861-1888)
  • Year of the Three Emperors
  • Wilhelm I (r. 1861-1888)
  • Frederick III – 99 days
  • Wilhelm II – (r. 1888-1918)
  • Liberal ideology
  • Historical irony
slide12

CRISIS SITUATIONS

  • Fashoda Crisis (1898)
  • Russo-Japanese War (1905)
  • First Moroccan Crisis (1905)
  • Bosnian Crisis (1908)
  • Second Moroccan Crisis (1911)
  • First Balkan War (1912)
  • Second Balkan War (1913)

“SOME DAMN THING IN THE BALKANS”

slide13

Tensions & Conflicts: 1873-1914

First Moroccan Crisis (1905)

Germany is going to test the waters between Britain and France. (Would Bismarck have let it get to this point? Would he be this reckless?)

Germany promotes Moroccan Independence…obviously goading the French, who control Morocco!

Yet, when the issue was brought before international purview in 1906, Germany was summarily defeated, and both the United States and Britain sided with France.

Ironically, because Germany had tried to push France around, it only brought France and Britain together!

slide16

BALKAN WARS

  • First Balkan War – Oct. 1912 – May 1913
  • Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, and Bulgaria) vs. Ottoman Empire
  • Second Balkan War – June 1913 – Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece
slide19

Militarism …a.k.a: “Arms Race”

Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

ain causes

slide20

MILITARISM

  • “mechanism of great standing armies and large navies, with the attendant evils of espionage, suspicion, fear, and hatred”
  • existence of a powerful class of military officers who tend to dominate over the civilian authorities

-Sydney B. Fay

slide21

MILITARISM

  • The build up of armies, navies, fortification of national boundaries, armament race, reserves
  • NEW WEAPONS
  • Tanks, submarines, machine guns, planes, gas
  • Intelligence, Communication, Transportation
  • War Plans, War Colleges
  • Industrial Revolution Technology
slide22

Militarism …a.k.a: “Arms Race”

Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

ain causes

slide23

ARMS RACE

  • 1910-1914 increased military expenditures
  • France – 10%
  • British – 13%
  • Russia – 39%
  • Germany – 73%
slide24

CONSCRIPTION

  • All Continental European countries since 1870
  • France – Revolutionary Wars
  • Austria-Hungary – 1868
  • Germany – 1870
  • Italy – 1873
  • Russia – 1874
  • WWI – “million man” military
  • Germany – 2 million
slide26

FlameThrowers

GrenadeLaunchers

slide27

Poison Gas

Machine Gun

slide28

MILITARISM

  • Bolt action rifle
  • Machine Guns
    • Maxim Machine Gun - 400-600 rounds per minute
  • Artillery
    • Big Bertha
    • Krupp Armaments
    • 2,200 pound shell 9 miles
slide29

MILITARISM

  • Planes
  • First used for Reconnaissance
  • Wright Brothers (1903)
  • “Red Baron”
  • Manfred von Richtohfen (1892-1918)
  • 80 confirmed victories
slide32

The Airplane

“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

slide33

The Flying Aces of World War I

FrancescoBarraco, It.

Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br.

Eddie Rickenbacher, US

Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”]

Rene PaukFonck, Fr.

Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.

slide37

MILITARISM

“No Man’s Land”

slide38

MILITARISM

  • Trench warfare
  • “Stalemate”
  • Harsh conditions
  • Disease
  • Rodents
  • Lice
  • Trench foot
slide40

MILITARISM

  • TANKS
  • Evolutionary Process
  • Industrial Revolution – Caterpillar Tracks – Steam Tractor
slide43

Tank Production 1916-18

Year

UK

France

Germany

Italy

USA

1916

150

-

-

-

-

1917

1,277

800

-

-

-

1918

1,391

4,000

20

6

84

slide45

NAVAL RACE

  • Britain and Germany chief rivals
  • 1900 German Navy Law – double the size
  • 1909-1911 – Tirpitz Plan
  • British produced the first Dreadnought
  • Germany built 9 Dreadnoughts
  • British 18 Dreadnoughts
  • WAR = GERMAN WORLD POWER
slide48

What is the ultimate goal of an alliance system?

Alliance System

“The secret of politics?

Make a good treaty with Russia.”

m in causes

slide49

ALLIANCES

  • “the greatest single underlying cause of the War was a system of secret alliances which developed after the Franco-Prussian War” – Sydney B. Fay
slide51

Alliances… Alliances … Alliances… Alliances…

  • Three Emperors’ League (1873)  Ger, A-H, Rus.
  • Dual Alliance (1879)  Ger. & A-H
  • Triple Alliance (1882) Ger, A-H, It.
  • Reinsurance Treaty (1887)  restore relations between Ger. & Rus.
slide52

ALLIANCES

  • Dual Alliance 1879
  • Germany and Austria Hungary
  • WHY?
  • To protect themselves from Russia
  • Austro-Serbia 1881
  • Austria Hungary and Serbia
  • WHY?
  • To protect themselves from Russia
slide53

ALLIANCES

  • Triple Alliance 1882
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
  • WHY?
  • To stop Italy with taking sides with Russia
  • Franco-Russian Alliance 1894
  • France and Russia
  • WHY?
  • To protect herself from Austria-Hungary and Germany
  • *Ended France’s isolation
slide54

ALLIANCES

  • Anglo-Russian Entente 1907
  • “understanding” b/w Britain and Russia
  • Entente Cordiale 1904
  • “understanding” b/w Britain and France
  • *brings Britain out of “splendid isolation”
slide55

ALLIANCES

  • THE TRIPLE ENTENTE 1907
  • Britain, France, and Russia
  • CENTRAL POWERS
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey
slide56

ALLIANCES

  • “the greatest single underlying cause of the War was a system of secret alliances which developed after the Franco-Prussian War” – Sydney B. Fay
slide57

Imperialism

ColonialRivalries:Africain1914

ma n causes

slide58

IMPERIALISM

  • Economic Imperialism - “embraces a series of international rivalries which resulted in large part from the Industrial Revolution in England and its subsequent introduction into the other great countries of the world.”

– Sydney B. Fay

slide59

IMPERIALISM

  • New Imperialism
  • “Scramble for Asia and Africa”
  • Intensification of arms race
  • Hostility among powers
  • Strengthened Alliances, Ententes
i mperialism
IMPERIALISM
  • REASONS FOR IMPERIALSM?
  • POWER, PRESTIGE
  • GERMANY “WELTPOLITIK”
  • NATURAL RESOURCES
  • NEW MARKETS FOR MANUFACTURED GOODS
  • PROFIT MOTIVE
  • CHRISTIANITY – “GOD, GLORY, GOLD”
  • CIVILIZED SOCIETY?
slide63

Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914

Completed in 1891. Longest railroad in the world at that time!

i mperialism1
IMPERIALISM
  • E –Economic
  • M –Military
  • P –Political
  • I –Ideological
  • R –Religious
  • E –Exploratory
slide65

"The white man is very clever. He came quietly and peaceably with his religion. We were amused at his foolishness and allowed him to stay. Now he has won our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart." - Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart, Ch. 20

i mperialism2
IMPERIALISM
  • Ironically, imperialist rivalries of the European Powers – contributed to Europe’s world supremacy
  • While also contributing to the disaster of WWI which led to the collapse of that supremacy
slide68

Feeds the ethnic tensions in the Balkans that will draw Austria and Russia into conflict and starts the dominos falling!

jingoism

Nationalism

mai causes

Makes it difficult for nations to compromise what they perceived as their national honor

slide70

Mass Politics

Many felt war was natural product of human advancement!

Intellectucal Context

mai n causes

ndustrial Revolution

slide71

NATIONALISM

  • The Congress of Vienna 1815
  • Nationalism ignore in favor of peace
  • Nation building – Italy (1861) and Germany (1871)
  • Pan-slavism
  • Austria – Hungary = Pan -Germanism
slide72

NATIONALISM

Pan-Germanism - movement to unify the people of all German speaking countries

Germanic Countries

Austria*

Belgium

Denmark

Iceland

Germany*

Liechtenstein*

Luxembourg

Netherlands

Norway

Sweden

Switzerland*

United Kingdom

* = German speaking country

slide73

NATIONALISM

  • Nation? State? Nation-State?
  • State– human created boundaries – central authority, sovereign, laws, rules
  • Nation - group of people who see themselves linked to one another- ethnically, culturally, or linguistically (psychological feeling)
  • Nation-State - inhabitants to some degree, consider themselves to be a nation with human created boundaries and a single gov’t
  • Nationalism – psychological force that binds together people who identify themselves with each other
slide75

NATIONALISM

  • Double – edged sword
  • Utilized to unify Germany and Italy
  • Threatened the very existence of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
  • Different Types
  • Economic Nationalism
  • Militant Nationalism
  • Dynastic Nationalism
  • Czechs, Poles, Serbs, Croats, Slovaks, Rumanians
slide76

NATIONALISM

  • Nations stressed homogeneity of ethnicity
  • Charles Darwin – Origin of Species
  • Social Darwinism – Herbert Spencer – survival of the “fittest”
  • Superiority of the white race
  • Racism justified imperialism
  • Progress – Modernization