Nationalism in Europe HISTORY
Major Topics Meaning- Nationalism and Nation States Feature of the painting of Frederic Sorrieu French Revolution Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism in Europe Factors contributed for the growth of Nationalism in Europe Age of Revolution: 1830-1848 Unification of Germany Unification of Italy Greek War of Independence Role of Women in nationalist struggle
Nationalism The words ‘nation’ and ‘nationality’ are derived from the Latin word ‘Natus’ which means a ‘race’. Devotion, love and patriotic feelings for one’s own nation is called Nationalism. It is feeling of political consciousness and unity among the people of the state.
Define- Nation State A nation state is one, in it’s the majority of the residents as well as the rulers develop a sense of common identity and shared history and traditions.
Feature- Frederic Sorrieu painting (Fig:1) In1848, Frederic Sorrieu, the French artist prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of world made up of ‘Democratic and Social Republic’. In his first print of this series shows people of America and Europe-men and women of all ages and social classes marching in a long train and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty. In his utopian vision, people of the World are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume. Leading the procession, USA and Switzerland, that time they were already nation state
France- identifiable by the revolutionary tri colour just reached the statue. Its followed by Germany- bearing black, red and gold flag but interesting thing German people did not yet exist as a nation state- the flag they are carry is an expression of liberal hope in 1848 to unify the German speaking people in to a nation- state under a democratic constitution. Following the German peoples, the people of Austria, the Kingdom of two Sicilies, Lomabardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia From the heaven Christ, Saints and angels graze upon the scene. They have been used by the artist to symbolise fraternity among the nation of the World.
Feature of the Statue of Liberty The artists of the time of then French revolution personified Liberty as a female figure. The torch of enlightenment she bears in one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man in the other. On the ground in the foreground of the image lie the shattered the remains of the symbol of absolutist institutions.
Ernst Renan and his idea about Nation He was a French philosopher (1823- 92) He delivered a lecture at the University of Sorbonne in 1882 and this lecture subsequently published as a famous essay entitled- ‘Quest-cequune nation?’ (What is a Nation). In this essay he criticises the notion suggested by others that a nation formed by a common language, race, religion or territory. (Page No.4)
Absolutist Litterly, a government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, this term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralized, militarised and repressive. Utopian A vision of a society that is so ideal that is unlikely to actually exist. Plebiscite A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal
What is the importance of French revolution to compare with other revolutions The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in1789. Before 1789, France was full fledged territorial state under the control of absolute monarchy. As a result of the French revolution the power had transferred from the monarchy to the body of French Citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute of nation and shapes its destiny The French revolution had very much influenced the other revolutions also
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French Revolution The French Revolution was broke out in 1789. The revolutionaries of France took the following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French People. 1. The ideas of fatherland (La Patrie) and the Citizen (Le citoyen) laid emphasis on the notion of united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. 2. A new French flag of tri colour was chosen to replace the former French monarch.
3. An elected body of the active citizens, known as National Assembly, was formed manage the state affairs. 4. New hymns were composed and martyrs were commemorated all in the name of nation 5. A centralised system was set up to formulate uniform laws for all citizens within French territory 6. All customs duties were abolished and uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. 7. Regional language were discouraged and French was adopted as the common language of the nation.
Formation of Jacobin Clubs The news and events related with the French revolution reached in different cities of Europe. The students and the other members of educated middle classes started the Jacobin Clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies to move in Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy also and the armies carried the idea of nationalism abroad.
The role of Napoleon in French Revolution (Or) Administrative Reforms of Napoleon He was a great French general, who won many battles for the revolutionary France. During his period most of the European nations were under the control of the monarchical form of government. If any territory came under his control he introduced many reforms already he had introduced in France He destroyed the democracy in France however in the administrative field he introduced many revolutionary principles
In 1804, he introduced a Civil Code known as Napoleonic Code gave the privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French Control. He abolished the Feudal system and freed the peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns- guild restrictions were removed. Transport and Communication were improved. Peasants, Workers, Artisans and New businessmen enjoyed lot of freedom Introduced uniform laws, standardized weights and measures and a common national currency for to exchange the goods from one place to another.
Initially many places like Holland and Switzerland as well as the cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw the French armies were welcomed for to bring the liberty. But this initial enthusiasm turned in to tensions and became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom Increased taxation, Censorship and the desire for conquer in the rest of Europe considered as the disadvantages of his administration. He was defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815 and had sent him as a prisonerto spent his last days in a small island St.Helena where he died in 1821.
Civil Code of 1804 In 1804, Napoleon he introduced a Civil Code known as Napoleonic Code gave the privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French Control.
Europe in the 18th Century The map of Europe in the mid of the 18th century was so different from today. Germany, Italy and Switzerland were not countries. All these were split in to different kingdoms. There were number of monarchies within western and Central Europe. The people belonged to different ethnic groups Austria- Hungary were comprised the Habsburg Empire The people in this empire belonged to different ethnic groups. The territories under the monarchy included the Alpine regions, Austria, Sudetenland and Bohemia
Some people they spokes Germany and others Italian The Hungarians spoke Magyar and a number of other dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke polish Beside these three groups- Bohemians and Slovaks to the North, Slovenes in Carniola, Croats in South and the Roumans to the east in Transylvania. These difference were not helpful in promoting a feeling of commonness among the people. The idea of nationalism emerged in these countries after a period of time.
How did the idea of Nationalism and Nation State emerged in Europe? Rise of Middle Class Within Europe, there were two classes of people. There were the Aristocrats and Peasants. The aristocrats made a homogenous social group. They spoke French and their families were united by matrimonial connections. They comprised the high Society. Their number were very small but the power they enjoyed enormous. The majority of the population comprised the peasants who worked as a tenants owned by the aristocracy. The estates were relatively small in Western Europe, but in the East and Central regions, the estates were vast in size. They were cultivated by the serfs.
The industrialization brought important change in these two social groups. Apart from the aristocrats and peasants a new group were emerged. The Industrial workers, industrialists, businessmen and Professionals. These groups were educated and liberal in their attitude, and they were known as Middle Classes. With the abolition of aristocracies in Europe, these groups though small in number but assumed great significance. The idea of nationalism were propagated by the Middle class that stood for the abolition of privileges based on birth.
Liberal Nationalism (Political & Economical) Middle class was for individual equality and freedom. In political terms, which means all people were treated as equal before law. Citizens were governed by institutions that had been formed with the consent of the people. There was no place for aristocracy or privileges based on birth and there was no special privileges for the clergy also. The right to hold the property was upheld by the liberals during the 19 century in Europe. The equality before law should not be mixed with universal suffrage or every citizen having the right to vote.
The Napoleonic Code did not provide for voting rights to all citizens. Women were excluded from the lists. Women and those without property had to agitate for political rights in the 19th century. In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. Before the introduction of Napoleonic code Germany was divided in to 39 states and possessed own currency, weights and measures. Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods.
It was a time consuming calculation. These are some of the obstacles faced by the commercial classes, they argued for the creation of unified economic territory In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. The creation of the network of the railway stimulated the mobility and helped these economic interest to national unification. The economists began to think in terms of the national economy. They talked about how the nation could develop and what economic measures could help to bring all nation together A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalists sentiments growing at the time.
Criticism against New Conservatism The spirit of the Liberalism suffered a big jolt after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. Once again conservatism raised its head. The conservatives believed in the old system of monarchy. They believed the role of church and family in the social life needed to be revived. However they did not propose a return to the society of pre revolutionary days. They wanted new reforms to be implemented in a manner that traditional monarchies could be strengthened. The power of the state was to be made more effective through a strong army and the effective bureaucracy
The Vienna congress in 1815, drawn a new treaty called ‘Vienna Treaty’. It caused for the restoration of Bourbon dynasty that had been dethroned during the French Revolution. France was to lose territories that had been annexed under Napoleon, and prevented the French expansion in the future, a number of states were set up on the boundaries of France. In the North- Netherlands was set up and it included Belgium. South- Genoa was added to Piedmont West- new territories were given to Prussia and Australia was given to control northern Italy East- Russia was given part of Poland and Prussia was given a portion of Saxony
The Treaty of Vienna however did not make any alterations in the German confederation comprising of 39 states. They tried to restore monarchies that had been overthrown during Napoleonic wars. A new conservative order emerged in Europe after the end of the Vienna treaty. New regime were autocratic. Censorship were imposed and dissent were not allowed. Ideas of freedom and liberty could no longer be propagated through newspapers, magazines or books in these autocratic regions. The liberal nationalists they start to criticize the new conservative order and they stand for the freedom of the press.
Revolution against the Autocracy The liberals opposed to the autocracies chose to go underground. Secret societies were formed in Europe to protest against suppression of the freedom of speech. Monarchies were to be challenged through a revolution and they were fight for liberty and freedom. The revolutionaries felt that it was necessary to have a nation state for the struggle for freedom
Liberalism It is derived from the Latin word ‘Liber’ which means free. It stand for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges and a constitution and representative government
Zoltherin It was a customs union, formed in 1834 at the initiatives of Prussia and joined by almost all the German states. T abolished tariff barrier and reduced the number of currencies from thirty to only two. Conservatives As against the liberals, the conservatives believed that to establish traditional institutions of state and society- like monarchy, the Church and Social hierarchies.
Importance of the Vienna Congress- 1815 In 1815, the representatives of the European powers- Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria- who had collectively defeated Napoleon met at Vienna to draw a settlement for Europe. The congress was hosted by Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. They made a treaty called ‘Treaty of Vienna- 1815’ Features The Bourbon dynasty was collapsed during the French revolution, it was restored to power. The France lost its territories it had annexed under Napoleon
3. A series of state were up on the boundaries of France to prevent the French expansion. 4. In the North- Netherlands was set up and it included Belgium. 5. South- Genoa was added to Piedmont 6. West- new territories were given to Prussia and Australia was given to control northern Italy 7. East- Russia was given part of Poland and Prussia was given a portion of Saxony 8. But the German confederation of the 39 states that had been set up by Napoleon was untouched Main intention was to restore the monarchies and should create a new conservative order in Europe.
Note about- Giuseppe Mazzini Italian revolutionary Born in Genoa in 1807 Became the member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he had been exiled from his country because the attempt for a revolution in Liguria. He founded two underground societies 1. Young Italy in Marseilles 2. Young Europe in Berne for the same minded youths in Poland, France, Italy and Germany
He believed hat God has made the nations to be natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue small states and kingdoms. It need to be form a single unified republic with wider alliance nation. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian unification. Same to his model Secret societies were started in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. His vision for democratic republic frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him ‘” the most dangerous enemy of our social order”
He was known as ‘poor man’s lawyer” Spiritual force behind the unification of Italy We Italians could and therefore ought to struggle for the liberty of our country.
Age of Revolution: 1830-1848 Introduction July Revolution Greek War of Independence Role of Culture for the spread of nationalism Role of Economic factor for the spread of nationalism Role of Women in nationalist struggle Revolution led by the Liberals in 1848.
The conservative regimes tried to consolidate their power but the liberals and nationalists tried to associate with revolution in many regions of Europe. Especially- Italian and German states, the provinces of Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland. These revolutions were led by liberal- nationalists belongs to the educated middle class- professors, school teachers, clerks and the members of the commercial middle class.
July Revolution in France- 1830 After the period of Napoleon (1815), Louis XVII the brother of Louis XVI installed his Bourbon dynasty in France. In July 1830, it was overthrown by liberal revolutionaries. They installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe as its head. Metternich states that- “When France Sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold”. This revolution greatly affected the other countries in Europe- Belgium, Poland, Germany, Italy and England
Greek War of Independence Greece had been part of Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century I821- the growth of nationalism in Europe sparked the struggle for independence among the Greeks. Nationalism in Greeks got support from the other Greeks from other parts and the West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization and mobilized the public opinion against the Muslim empire. The English poet Lord Byron organised funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever of fever in 1824. Finally, the treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
The role of Culture for the growth of Nationalism in Europe(Or)Role of Romanticism for the growth of Nationalism The development of nationalism did not came only through the wars and territorial expansion. The culture played a huge role especially the art, poetry, stories and music for the growth of nationalism. Romanticism It was a cultural movement it tries to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic poets and artists criticised the glorification of reason and science and focused on emotions, institutions and mystical feelings Their effort was to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past as the basis of nation.
Johabb Gottfried Herder- Romantic German philosopher claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people- das volk It was through the folk songs, poetry and dance that the true spirit of the nation (Volksgeist) was popularized So the collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to nation building The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore carried a modern national message to large audience who were mostly literate. End of the 18th century Poland was partitioned by the great powers like Prussia, Russia and Austria. Poland no longer existed as an independent territory, national feelings were kept through the music and language Karol Kurpinski- celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, folk songs like the polonaise and mazurka in to nationalist symbol
Language also played on important role for the growth of nationalism The polish language was forced out of school and Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831 a armed rebellion crushed the Russian rule The clergies in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for church gathering and all religious instructions, a number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities. The use of polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance
Economic factor for the emergence of nationalism 1830- great economic hardship in Europe. Half of the 19th century population increased in Europe Most of the countries unemployment increased very much People from rural areas migrated to the cities. Small producers faced stiff competition from imports of cheap machine made goods from England, where industrialization was more advanced than on the continent In textile production carried out from homes or small workshops and was only partly mechanized. Peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations, especially the aristocratic provinces in Europe The rise of food price or a year of bad harvest led to widespread led tensions in towns and country
1n 1848- food shortage and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the road. Barricades were destroyed and Louis Phlilppe was forced to flee. The National Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work. National workshops to provide employment were set up.
What was the cause of the Silesian Weaver’s Uprising? 1845- weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractors who supplied them raw materials and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments. On January at 2 p.m. large crowd of weavers in Paris marched to the house of contractor for high wages They were treated with scorn and threats alternately A group of them marched to the home and smashed its windows, furniture and porcelain. Another group broke in to the storehouse and plundered the items. The contractor fled with his family to the neighboring village, they refused to give a shelter such a person He returned 24 hours later having requisitioned army, in the exchange that followed, eleven weavers were shot dead.
Role of Women for the growth of Nationalism in Europe In all the Europeans states- France, Germany, Italy and the Austro Hungarian empire women had taken an active part in the nationalist struggles of their countries. They were equally responsible for demanding constitutionalism with national unification. Women had formed their own political associations and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. They were denied equal voting rights like those of men The political rights for women was a controversial in the liberal movement When the Frankfurt parliament met at St. Paul Church women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors gallery The View of Liberal Politician, Carl Welcke an elected member of Frankfurt parliament was
“Nature has created man and women to carry out different functions….Man, the stronger, the public holder has been designated as protector of the family, its provider, meant for public tasks in the domain of law, production, defence. Woman, the weaker, dependent and timid requires the protection of man her sphere is home, the care of children, the nurturing of the family. Do we requires any further proof that given such differnce, equality between the sexes would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family.”
To prepare a note about the Revolution of the Liberals in 1848 Parallel to the revolts of the poor, unemployed, starving peasants and workers, a revolution led by educated middle class in Europe In February 1848, France abolished the monarchy and republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed. The men and women of the liberal middle classes especially in Germany, Italy, Poland and Austro Hungarian empire combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification They were demanded for the creation of nation state on parliamentary principles- a constitution, freedom of the press and the freedom of the association
In the German regions, the political associations of the middle class professionals, business men and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfut and decided to vote for an all German National Assembly On May 1848- 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their place in the Frankfut parliament convened in the church of St.Paul They drafted a constitution for a German nation . The king of Prussia- Friedrich Wilhelm IV rejected and joined other monarch to oppose the elected assembly. The opposition aristocracy and military became stronger The parliament was headed by middle class and they refused the demands of the peasants and artisans consequently they had lost their support. Lastly the troop was disband
The conservative forces suppressed the liberal movements in 1848, but they could not restore old order. Monarchs they could understood through the granting of concession they could end the liberal- nationalist revolutionaries. Especially after 1848, the autocratic monarchs in western and central Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815. The serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominions and Russia