The New Europe. The Council of Europe. Council of Europe created in 1948 European federalists hoped Council would quickly evolve into a true European parliament with sovereign rights, but this did not happen.
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Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings have full responsibility for creating the meanings of their own lives. It is a reaction against more traditional philosophies, such as rationalism and empiricism.
In the 1940s and 1950s, French philosophers such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, and Albert Camus wrote scholarly and fictional works that helped to popularize themes associated with existentialism: "dread, boredom, alienation, the absurd, freedom, commitment, and nothingness".
Problems in higher education: classes overcrowded; little contact with professors; competition for grades intense; demanded even more practical areas of study to qualify for high-paying jobs after college
Some students warned of dangers of narrowly trained experts ("technocrats") who would serve the establishment to the detriment of working class.
Postwar economic boom fueled by cheap oil, especially in western Europe.
1973, OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) dramatically increased oil prices in Europe and U.S. in retaliation for their support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War against Egypt and Syria.
Second price increase in 1979 during Iranian Revolution hurt modest progress since 1976.
Willy Brandt: "eastern initiative" -- West German chancellor, began to improve relations with Eastern Europe
Brandt sought a comprehensive peace settlement for central Europe and a new resolution of the “German Question.”
Negotiated treaties with USSR, Poland, and Czechoslovakia that formally accepted existing state boundaries and the loss of German territory to Poland and USSR in return for mutual renunciation of force or threat of force.