Hitler’s Lightning War Chapter 16 section 1-4
Germany sparks a new war in Europe • Germany sparks a new war in Europe • Stalin signed 10 year agreement: Non-Aggression pact- with Germany- saying they would not fight • Secret part: Germany and Soviet Union agreed to divide Poland, USSR could have Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia • Germany’s lightning attack • Blitzkrieg- lightning war • Germans used artillery and bombing to attack Warsaw, capital of Poland • France and GB will declare war Germany • Western half of Poland will fall to Hitler • Soviets make their move • Stalin sent Soviet troops to occupy the Eastern half of Poland • Finland will resist • Soviets pull out the win • Finns will accept Hitler’s surrender terms
The Phony War • French and Brits had mobilized army against Germany • Stationed on Maginot Line- system of fortifications along France’s border with Germany • Nothing happened referred to as a “phony war” • Calm will end- Hitler launched surprise invasion of Denmark and Norway • Denmark fell and Norway surrendered • Germany began to build bases along the coast to launch strikes on Great Britain
The Fall of France • Hitler send tanks through the Ardennes- heavily wooded are in Northern France, Luxm., and Belgium • Germans squeezed between the Maginot Line • Moved across France • Rescue at Dunkirk • Germans had trapped the Allied forces around the Northern French city of Lille • Allies retreated to the beaches of Dunkirk, French Port • G.B. set out to rescue the Army • Ships crossed the English Channel and carry 338,000 soldiers to safety
France Falls • Resistance in France crumbles after Dunkirk • Germans take Paris • French leaders surrender • Germans take N. France and leave S. France to puppet gov’t headed by Marshal Petain • Headquarters for Petain was in Vichy France • Charles de Gaulle- French general, set up exile gov’t in London • Commits all energy to taking back France • Will battle Nazi’s until France was liberated in 1944
The Battle of Britain • G.B. stood alone against the Nazis • Winston Churchill- new G.B. prime minister • Hitler will try to invade G.B. • Hitler 1st wanted to destroy RAF- royal air force then land troops • Luftwaffe- German air force began bombing • British will not waver • Technological advances help Britain • Radar- could tell #, speed, and direction of Luftwaffe • Enigma machine- decoded German messages • Germans will give up on daylight raids • Stunned by British resistance Hitler called off attacks • Key to this battle: Hitler could be defeated
The Mediterranean and the Eastern Front • Hitler will have a shift in strategy • Turned attention to Med., Balkans, and the Soviet Union • Axis forces attack N. Africa • Axis powers- Germany, Italy, Japan • Mussolini orders attack on Egypt • Suez Canal was key to oil in Middle East • Britain Strikes Back • Hitler sends in Afrika Korps- German tank force led by Erwin Rommel- later called the Desert Fox for his success • Rommel will seized Tobruk
War in the Balkans • Hitler was planning to attack USSR from the Balkans • Hitler persuaded Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary to join the Axis • Hitler invades the Soviet Union • Operation Barbarossa- plan to invade the USSR • Soviet Gerneral Georgi Zhukov will counterattack Nazis • Germans will retreat • Hitler will gain nothing but 500,000 German deaths
The U.S. aids Allies • Congress will pass Neutrality Acts • Illegal to sell arms or lend $ to nations at war • Roosevelt creates Lend-Lease Act • Roosevelt and Churchill met secretly and issued a joint declaration called the Atlantic Charter- • Upheld free trade, right to choose own gov’t • U.S. was in undeclared naval war with Hitler • U.S. will enter war b/c of Japan
Japan’s pacific campaign • Objectives: Chapter 16, Section 2 • Explain how Japanese expansionism led to war with the Allies in Asia. • Describe Japan’s early battle successes. • Explain how the Allies were able to stop Japanese expansion. • Summarize Allied battle strategy.
Japan’s Pacific Campaign • Japan is trying to take over much of Asia • Surprise attack on Pearl Harbor • U.S. aware of Japan’s plans for S.E. Asia • They wanted American controlled Philippine Islands & Guam • So U.S. will send aid to strengthen Chinese against Japan • U.S. will cut off oil supplies to Japan • Japan will not stop • Isoroku Yamamoto- Japanese Admiral who will call for attack on Pearl Harbor
Day of Infamy • December 7, 1941- attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • Japanese attack Pearl Harbor • 19 ships: 8 Battleships, 2300 killed, 1100 wounded • “a date which will live in infamy”- Roosevelt • War is declared on Japan and it’s Allies • Japanese move on to British colony of Hong Kong and American controlled Guam and Wake Island
Japanese victories • Guam and Wake Island fall to Japan • Turn their attention to Philippines • U.S. and Pilipino take up defensive position on Bataan Peninsula • Japanese will take Peninsula • Brutal treatment was used against prisoners • The Allies Strike Back • U.S. wanted revenge for Pearl Harbor • Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle • Battle of the Coral Sea will be victorious in preventing Japan’s Southward advance • Battle of Midway • W. of Hawaii, American airfield • Japanese vs. Americans from Pearl Harbor • Yamamoto will order crippled fleet to withdraw • Will be the turning tide for the war in Pacific
An Allied Offensive • U.S. moral high after Battle of Midway • General Douglas McArthur- commander of Allied land forces • Battle of Guadalcanal- fighting between U.S. and Japan on the island of Guadalcanal • “island hopping” to seize islands and get closer to Japan • Japanese will abandon
Critical thinking questions • How did Yamamoto justify a preemptive strike on the U.S.? • He argued the U.S. had threatened Japan. • Summarize the fighting in the Pacific between December 1941 and 1942. • Japan had a series of victories, some easy and some hard-fought
The holocaust • Objectives: Chapter 16, Section 3 • Trace the course of persecution of Jews by the Nazis. • Describe the results of the “Final Solution.”
The Holocaust • Nazi’s propose new racial order • Aryans- master race of Germanic peoples • All non-Aryans were inferior: especially Jewish • Holocaust- mass slaughter of Jews and other groups • Holocaust begins • Jews became targets of German failures • Nuremberg Laws- took away rights of Jews • Citizenship, marriages
“night of broken glass” • German diplomat shot in Paris • By Grynszpan: for revenge of father being deported to Poland • Germans launch attack on Jews • This night will be known as kristallnacht • Kristallnacht became a major policy of Jewish persecution • Flood of Refugees • Jews will flee Germany • Hitler called it a “Jewish problem” • Other countries will turn down the influx of Jewish immigrants • Isolating the Jews • Hitler will move Jews into Ghettos- segregated Jewish areas • Ghettos were then sealed off • Some Jews will form resistance groups in ghettos • Jews will struggle to keep traditions
The “Final Solution” • Hitler grows impatient • Plan- “final solution” becomes plan for genocide- mass killing of entire people • Plan for conquest depended on purity of Aryan race • Killings begin • Hitler’s SS will hunt down Jews • Shot prisoners in pits • Jews not reached by killing squads went to concentration camps • Final Stage • Extermination camps built with gas chambers • Auschwitz- largest of the camps • The Survivors • 6 million will die • Less then 4 million will survive
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS • Why did Hitler begin mass killing of Jews? • Starvation and disease was not killing them fast enough. • What was the difference between a concentration camp and an extermination camp? • Concentration camps were slave-labor prisons. Extermination camps were for mass murder.
The allied victory • Objectives: CHAPTER 16, SECTION 4 • Describe the Allied strategy in Europe. • List efforts made on the home front. • Summarize events that led to the surrender of Germany and of Japan.
The Allied Victory • Russian’s join the Allies against Germany • Tide turns on 2 fronts • U.S. and G.B. will strike at N. Africa and S. Europe • Supplies will be sent to help Russia • N. African Campaign • General Bernard Montgomery- will take control of Brit. Troops • Fighting against Rommel in the Battle of El Alamein • Rommel’s army will fall back • Operation Torch- led by General Dwight Eisenhower, will catch Rommel while he is fleeing from Montgomery • Rommel will be crushed for good
The Battle for Stalingrad • Hitler sends army in to capture Stalingrad • Luftwaffe will night bomb the city • Russians trap German’s within the city and cut off supplies • In February, German troops will surrender to Soviets • German’s were on the defensive and being pushed back • Invasion of Italy • Roosevelt and Churchill choose to invade Italy • Allied forces take S. Italy • Germans seize N. Italy • Fighting continues until Germany falls • Mussolini found in back of a truck
The Allied Home Fronts • Americans produce weapons and equipment for war • Mobilizing for war • Prepared for total war • Shortage of consumer goods • Propaganda used for citizens to help • War limits civil rights • Prejudice will arise from war • propaganda used against Japanese • Internment camps set up • This would prevent future invasions from “spies”
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS • What did the debate about a second front imply about relationships among the Allies? • Britain and the U.S. were closer to each other than the Soviet Union. • How did the North African campaign show the value of international cooperation? • British and American forces combined to win.
Victory in Europe The D-Day Invasion • Allies plan invasion of France; use deception to confuse Germans • D-Day—June 6, 1944; day of “Operation Overlord” invasion of France • Allied forces capture Normandy beaches; liberate Paris by September
The Battle of the Bulge • U.S., British forces advance on Germany from west, Soviets from east • Battle of the Bulge—German counterattack in December 1944 • Germans gain early success but forced to retreat Germany’s Unconditional Surrender • By 1945, Allied armies approach Germany from two sides • Soviets surround Berlin in April 1945 • Hitler commits suicide • On May 9, 1945, Germany officially surrenders, marking V-E Day • President Roosevelt dies in April; Harry Truman becomes president
Victory in the Pacific The Japanese in Retreat • Allies move to retake the Philippines in late 1944 • Battle of Leyte Gulf leaves Japanese navy badly damaged • Kamikazes—Japanese pilots who fly suicide missions • In March 1945, American forces capture Iwo Jima • U.S. takes Okinawa in June 1945; Japan suffers huge casualties
The Japanese Surrender • Advisors warn Truman that invasion of Japan will cost many lives • He has alternative; powerful new weapon called atomic bomb • Manhattan Project—secret program to develop the bomb • Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, August 6, 1945; about 75,000 die • Nagasaki bombed on August 9; 70,000 die immediately • Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS • What caused Germany to surrender? • Allied and Soviet troops were preparing to take Berlin; Hitler had committed suicide. • What does the use of kamikazes indicate about the strength of the Japanese navy? • It was so weak they had to hope that suicidal missions would halt the American advance.