ch 11 4 11 5 transcription translation n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Ch. 11.4 & 11.5: Transcription & Translation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Ch. 11.4 & 11.5: Transcription & Translation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 14

Ch. 11.4 & 11.5: Transcription & Translation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 106 Views
  • Uploaded on

Ch. 11.4 & 11.5: Transcription & Translation. Objectives: Explain one-gene-one polypeptide hypothesis. Describe the process of transcription. Explain how RNA is edited. Describe how RNA is translated into a protein. Describe how amino acids are coded. Summarize protein synthesis. Vocab.:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Ch. 11.4 & 11.5: Transcription & Translation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Ch. 11.4 & 11.5: Transcription & Translation Objectives: Explain one-gene-one polypeptide hypothesis. Describe the process of transcription. Explain how RNA is edited. Describe how RNA is translated into a protein. Describe how amino acids are coded. Summarize protein synthesis. Vocab.: Transcription, RNA (ribonucleic acid), mRNA, RNA polymerase, intron, extron, RNA splicing Translation, tRNA, codon, anticodon, Codon, rRNA

    2. One Gene, One Polypeptide Genotype: sequence of nucleotides bases in DNA. Phenotype: Organism traits; based on proteins & protein fxns

    3. Expose bread mold to X-rays (Mutation = Damaged DNA). • Essential enzyme/amino acid cannot be made from damaged DNA. • Mutated mold won’t grow on “minimal” medium that lacks enzyme/amino acid it can’t make. Beadle & Tatum: Research leads to “One gene, one enzyme” “one enzyme” - not accurate. 1 gene = 1 poly-peptide (part of 1 enzyme/protein) Beadle & Tatum Experiment: 9:57 min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vP_h08cT5jw

    4. RNA carries DNA instructions to Ribos. Ribosomes make PROTEINS. • RNA: Ribonucleic Acid • Single strand nucleotide • 1. 5-C Sugar: Ribose • Phosphate • Nitrogen base (A, U, G, C) U = Uracil; Replaces T A binds to U; G binds to C

    5. Transcription: DNA --> mRNA • DNA cannot leave nucleus. • DNA nucleotide sequence is converted into mRNA (messenger RNA). • mRNA leaves nucleus --> directs protein synthesis @ ribo. in cytoplasm. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=983lhh20rGY&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41_Ne5mS2ls

    6. Transcription: RNA Polymerase • Enzyme that links RNA nucleotides together (like DNA polymerase) • Transcribes specific segments of DNA.

    7. RNA SPLICING: Editing mRNA 1. INTRONS removed/spliced • non-coding sequences (junk) • Do not code for amino acids 2. EXONS: • Coding sequences • Translate into amino acids (expressed) Splicing: In eukaryotes mRNA is modified before it leaves nucleus.

    8. Modifying mRNA

    9. Translation: mRNA --> proteins • Based on CODON “language” • 3-bases translate into a CODE for specific amino acids. • Amino acids build polypeptides. Nucleic acids --> Proteins

    10. TRANSLATION Each codon codes for 1 amino acid. Start codons: AUG (start translating) Stop codons: UAA, UAG, UGA Same codes for almost ALL organisms!

    11. Required ATP mRNA Ribosomes tRNA Translation • tRNA: Transfer RNA • Translates codon of mRNA into amino acids. • “Fetches” correct amino acid • Attatches to correct codon. • Has “anti-codon” complement to attatch to codon.

    12. rRNA: ribosome (organelle) 2 subunits snap together. mRNA and tRNA join each other in RIBOSOME. Translation: rRNA (Ribosome) 2 tRNA binding sites where translation happens: P site: Growing polypeptide chain. A site: new amino acid binds

    13. Translation: Elongation Polypeptide chain grows. • Translation begins (AUG) codon • Amino acids are added by tRNA (based on mRNA codons). • Translation ends (UAA, UAG, UGA); stop codon. • Polypeptide released (Goes to E.R. and Golgi for modification)

    14. Translation Summary