Chinese-English Translation. English Department College of Foreign Languages Yangzhou University. Definitions of translation . Translating is the art of recomposing a work in another language without losing its original flavor . —Columbia Encyclopedia
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College of Foreign Languages
—J. C. Carford
—Eugene A. Nida
Author of ST—ST—Translator—TT—Readers of TT
Intermediate information receiver
Author of ST—ST—Translator—TT—Readers of TT
Secondary information dispatcher
It is sometimes said that there is no task more complex than translation—a claim that can be readily believed when all the variables involved are taken into account. Translators not only need to know their source language well; they must also have a thorough understanding of the field of knowledge covered by the source text, and of any social, cultural, or emotional connotations that need to be specified in the target language if the intended effect is to be conveyed. The same special awareness needs to be present for the target language, so that points of special phrasing, local (e. g. regional) expectations, and so on, can all be taken into account.
—Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language
We expect approximate truth in translation…what we want to have is the truest possible feel of the original. The characters, the situation, the reflection, must come to us as they were in the author’s mind and breast, not necessarily by precisely as he had them on his lips.
Diverse interpretations are made of Yan Fu’s three-character criterion for translation as:
在翻译实践中，篇章是最终的考核质量的单位，句子是基本的操作单位，而大部分的难题都集中在词汇单位。（Peter Newmark, 1981）（陈宏微2004：69）
(Charles W. Ferguson)
奈达在From One Language to Another(与J. Waard合著)中将功能分为九类：
According to Karl Buhler（布勒尔）, language serves simultaneously to
While the Vietnam vet was fighting, and losing limb and mind, and dying, others stayed behind to pursue education and career.
2.weeping eyes and hearts
3.wage war and peace
4.poor but not wanting in enterprise; poor but with lofty ideals (aspirations)；
5.What a heavy load this aeroplane bore! It carried the hearts of the people of the liberated areas, the hopes of the entire Chinese people, and the destiny of our country.
1. Beauty is truth, truth beauty.美就是真，真就是美。
2.举杯消愁愁更愁。Lift my cup of wine to drown my sorrow? My sorrow leaves me not.
3.女人如花，花似梦。Women are like flowers, flowers are like dreams.
Through endless space with rustling sound
The falling leaves are whirled round.
Beyond my ken a yeasty sea
The Yangtze’s waves are rolling free.
组合关系：feed bulls for milk；they go to church to pray and worship
聚合关系：brew wine and drink alcohol; brew spirits and drink wine; brew wine and drink beer
无论贫富：no matter rich or poor; no matter people are rich or poor; no matter poverty or wealth (richness)
种植庄稼和葡萄，酿酒和饮酒…：Growing crops and grapes; Grow crops and grapes
(to be continued)
They go to the church, praying and to attend church service.
They play the violin, dancing and sing.
People, poor or with property.
大小写；拼写（they go to church to prey）；时态；大自然（the nature）
Father said: “Do you like the peanut?”
We vied in giving the answer: “Yes, we do!”
My elder sister said: “It’s very delicious to eat.”
My bother said: “It is good for making oil.”
I said: “It is inexpensive….”
“Do you like the peanut?” said my father.
“Yes, we do!” we said eagerly.
“It’s very delicious to eat,” said my elder sister.
“It’s good for making oil,” said my elder brother.
“It’s expensive…,” I said finally.
“Yes!” we viedin giving the answer.
“But who can tell me what the peanut is good for?”
“It’s very delicious to eat,” my sister took the lead.
“It is good for making oil,” followed my brother.
“It is inexpensive,” finally came my turn. “Almost everyone can afford it and everyone enjoys eating it. I think this is what it is good for.”
cultural return (文化回归)
3）行为习俗层（behavioral and customary stratum）
(4)中国人重形象思维（figurative thinking），英美人重逻辑思维（logical thinking）（陈宏薇、李亚丹：2004：25－32）
In today’s society which is full of fierce competition, everyone can’t avoid bearing pressure. Some people have serious mental problems due to their inability to get rid of pressure. So, we should learn to face correctly and release pressure. Having a healthy, upward attitude is a good way to overcome pressure.
In today’s fiercely competitive society, nobody can avoid pressure. Some people have serious psychological problems because of their inability to cope with (deal with, handle) pressure. So, we should learn to face up to pressure, and release it properly. Having a positive, optimistic attitude is an effective way to manage pressure.
Living in bustling urban cities, people often feel unknown pressure. People all dream of getting rid of their problems sometimes and finding a piece of peace for the heart. In this case, you might as well go out for a stroll in the hills and fields on the weekends to fully relax your body and soul.
Living in today’s bustling cities, people often feel inexplicably depressed. Everyone dreams of casting aside their problems sometimes and finding peace of mind. In this case, go out for a stroll in the countryside on the weekends to fully relax.
I heard that universities were as relaxed as a paradise of playing. However, now I see many students reading in the campus grove every morning. Only now I realize that a busy and happy campus life is substantial.
I heard that campus life was relaxed, and that university was like a fun-filled paradise. However, now I have seen many students reading under the trees in the campus park every morning. I have only realized now that only a campus life which is both busy and happy is meaningful.
Collocation or Text Social, cultural, historical
frame of words, background, matrix
or sentence groups
搭配与词语/句与句句群 篇章、文本 社会、文化、历史背景(矩阵)