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  1. Chinese-English Translation English Department College of Foreign Languages Yangzhou University

  2. Definitions of translation • Translating is the art of recomposing a work in another language without losing its original flavor. —Columbia Encyclopedia • Translating is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL). —J. C. Carford

  3. Definitions of translation • Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms ofstyle.( 翻译是指从语义到文体在译语中用最切近而又最自然的对等语再现原文的信息。) —Eugene A. Nida • To translate is to change into another language, retaining as much of the sense as one can. —Samuel Johnson

  4. Definitions of translation • (Translating ) is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way the author intended the text. —Peter Newmark • Translation is an art that involves the re-creation of a work in another language for readers with a different background. —Malcolm Cowley

  5. Definitions of translation • A translation is taken to be any target-language utterance which is presented or regarded as such within the target culture, on whatever grounds. —Gideon Toury • Translation is the production of a functional target text maintaining a relationship with a given source text that is specified according to the intended or demanded function of the target text. —Christiane Nord

  6. Definitions of translation • Translation is an externally motivated industrial activity, supported by information technology, which is diversified in response to the particular needs of this form of communication. —Jean Sager

  7. Elements involved in the process of translating Author of ST—ST—Translator—TT—Readers of TT

  8. Elements involved in the process of translating Intermediate information receiver Author of ST—ST—Translator—TT—Readers of TT Secondary information dispatcher

  9. Definitions of translation • 翻译是一种跨文化的信息交流与交换活动,其本质是传播,是传播学中一个有特殊性质的领域。 ――吕俊 • 翻译是把具有某一种文化背景的发送者用某种语言(文字)所表述的内容尽可能充分地、有效地传达给使用另一种语言(文字)、具有另一种文化背景的接受者。 ――沈苏儒

  10. Definitions of translation • 翻译是两个语言社会之间的交际过程和交际工具,它的目的是要促进本语言社会的政治、经济和文化进步,它的任务是要把原作中包含的现实世界的逻辑映像或艺术映像,完好无损地从一种语言译注到另一种语言中去。――张今

  11. Sense of language • 1.sense of grammar • 2.sense of idiomaticness • 3.sense of meaning • 4.sense of style • 5.sense of situation • 6.sense of coherence (杨晓荣.汉译能力解析.中国翻译,2002/6)

  12. Translation as a task to be accomplished It is sometimes said that there is no task more complex than translation—a claim that can be readily believed when all the variables involved are taken into account. Translators not only need to know their source language well; they must also have a thorough understanding of the field of knowledge covered by the source text, and of any social, cultural, or emotional connotations that need to be specified in the target language if the intended effect is to be conveyed. The same special awareness needs to be present for the target language, so that points of special phrasing, local (e. g. regional) expectations, and so on, can all be taken into account. —Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language

  13. 翻译的性质 • 翻译是将一种语言文化承载的意义转换到另一种语言文化中的跨语言、跨文化的交际活动。意义的交流必须通过语言来实现,而每种语言都是一个独特文化的部分和载体。我们在转换一个文本的语言信息时,也在传达其蕴含的文化意义。翻译的本质是释义,是意义的转换。

  14. Criteria of translation • 诸佛典皆在天竺。天竺言语,与汉异音……名物不同,传实不易……仆初嫌其词不雅。维祇难曰:“佛言依其义不用饰,取其法不以严。其传经者,当令易晓,勿失厥义,是则为善。”座中咸曰:“老氏称:‘美言不信,信言不美。’……今传胡义,实且径达。” ----支谦(《法句经序》)                       

  15. Criteria of translation •   夫译之为事难矣,译之将奈何?其平日冥心钩考,必先将所译者与所以译者两国之文字,深嗜笃好,字栉句比,以考彼此文字孳生之源,同异之故,所有相当之实义,委曲推究,务审其音势高下,相其字句之繁简,尽其文体之变态,及其义理精深奥折之所以然。夫如是,则一书到手,经营反复,确知其意旨之所在,而又摹写其神情,仿佛其语气,然后心悟神解,振笔而书,译成之文,适如其所译而止,而曾无毫发出入于其间,夫而后能使阅者所得之益,与观原文无异,是则为善译也已。――马建忠(1845-1900,《拟设翻译书院议》,1894)

  16. Criteria of translation • “译”事三难:信、达、雅。求其信,已大难矣。顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也,则达尚焉。……译文取明深意,故词句之间,时有所颠倒附益,斤斤于字比句次,而意义则不倍本文。……至原文词理本深,难于共喻,则当前思后衬,以显其意。凡此经营,皆以为达:为达,即以为信也。《易》曰:“修辞立诚”。子曰“辞达而已!”又曰:“言之无文,行之不远”。三者乃文章正轨,亦即为译事楷模。故信达而外,求其尔雅。 ――严复(1854-1921,《天演论·译例言》)

  17. Translation has to do three difficult things: to be faithful, expressive and elegant. For a translation to be faithful to the original is difficult enough, and yet if it is not expressive, it is tantamount to having no translation. Hence expressiveness should also be required….

  18. The Book of Changes says that rhetoric should uphold truthfulness. Confucius says that expressiveness is all that matters in language. He adds that if one’s language lacks grace, it will not travel far. These qualities, then, are the criterion of good writing and, I believe, of good translation too. Hence besides faithfulness and expressiveness, a translator should also aim at elegance. (王佐良 译)

  19. Criteria of translation • 译者不但要求达义,并且要以传神为目的,译文必须忠实于原文之字神句气与言外之意。 ――林语堂 • 以效果而论,翻译应像临画一样,所求的不在形似,而是神似。 ――傅雷

  20. Criteria of translation • 文学翻译的最高标准可以说是“化”。把作品从一国文字转变成另一国文字,既不能因语言习惯的差异而露出生硬牵强的痕迹,又能完全保存原作的风味,那就算得入于“化境”。 ――钱钟书 • 真有灵感的译文,像投胎重生的灵魂一般,令人觉得是一种“再创造”。 ――余光中

  21. Criteria of translation We expect approximate truth in translation…what we want to have is the truest possible feel of the original. The characters, the situation, the reflection, must come to us as they were in the author’s mind and breast, not necessarily by precisely as he had them on his lips. —Oliver Edwards

  22. Criteria of translation • A good translator is: 1) To give a just representation of the sense of the original, 2) To convey into his version, as much as possible, in a consistency with the genius of the language with which he writes, the author’s spirit and manners, and 3) To take care that the version has at least the quality of an original performance so as to appear natural and easy. —George Campbell

  23. Criteria of translation • The best of a real translation is that it should not read like translation at all. —J. B. Philips • No translation, however learned, is of any value that does not give at least some of the joy to the readers that was given by its original. —A. J. Arborry

  24. Criteria of translation • (Tri-ness) Faithfulness, expressiveness, and gracefulness were considered the golden rule in the field of translation. —Herbert Rotheinstein

  25. Criteria of translation • 一是易解,二是保存原作的丰姿(鲁迅) • 神似(similarity in spirit)(傅雷) • 化境(sublimation)(钱钟书) • Alexander F. Tytler’s three principles • Functional equivalence (Eugene A. Nida) • 功能相似,语义相符(similarity in function and correspondence in meaning)

  26. Yan Fu’s three-character criterion for translation Diverse interpretations are made of Yan Fu’s three-character criterion for translation as: • “信”——Being faithful to the original(忠实于原文) • “达”——Being explicit and smooth(明白晓畅) • “雅”——Being elegant in diction (words)(措辞的优雅)

  27. Yan Fu’s three-character criterion for translation • “信”(faithfulness)——达旨(将原文说明) • “达”(expressiveness)——前后引衬,以显其意 • “雅”(elegance)——尔雅(用汉以前字法句法)

  28. Alexander F. Tytler • (1)译文应完全传达原文的思想。(A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work.) • (2)译文的风格和笔调应与原文一致。(The style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original.) • (3)译文应像原文一样流畅。(A translation should have all the ease of the original composition.)

  29. Basic Differences between Chinese and English • 一、语系 •   汉语属汉藏语系(Sino-Tibetan Family),英语属印欧语系(Indo-European Family)。 • 二、文字 •   汉语是表意文字(ideographic script),英语是拼音文字(alphabetic script)。 • 三、语音 •   汉语是声调语言(tonal language),英语是语调语言(intonation language)。

  30. 四、词汇 • 五、句法(形合与意合) • 六、篇章

  31. (一)构词 • 1、构词法 • 汉语和英语都能用合成法(compounding)、缀合法(affixation)、音变法(sound-changing)、缩略法(abbreviation)构词,也都通过翻译从外语中借进新词。不同的是,汉语还使用重叠法(reduplication),英语还用转换法(conversion)、逆构词法(back-formation)和截短法(clipping)构词。(p.36)

  32. 2、词义对比 • (1)词义涵盖 • (2)词的搭配

  33. 3、词义关系 • 词义相符(semantic correspondence) • 词义相异(semantic non-correspondence) • 词义空缺(semantic zero)

  34. Translation of Words and Expressions • Proper words in their proper places (词适其所) make the true definition of style. (Jonathan Swift) • The difference between the right word and the almost right word is really a large matter—‘tis the difference between the lightning bug and the lightning. (Mark Twain)

  35. A word is a world. It is history in the briefest form. It is a spot on a page but often a story of great events and movement. You can’t examine a word and learn it well without learning more than a word. (Charles W. Ferguson) (转引自:思果.《翻译研究》.中国对外翻译出版公司,2001:17-18)

  36. Translation of Words and Expressions 据文章 “积字为句、积句为段、积句为篇”的创作程式,汉英翻译过程可相应为三个部分:选词、构句、谋篇。    在翻译实践中,篇章是最终的考核质量的单位,句子是基本的操作单位,而大部分的难题都集中在词汇单位。(Peter Newmark, 1981)(陈宏微2004:69)

  37. There is inevitably a collision of backgrounds, of tradition, of environment, which each language carries with it. The mere understanding of what words and sentences mean is not enough. To understand, each has to enter into the mental landscape, the history, the stage-setting of the other’s mentality. (Stephen Spender英国现代诗人) (转引自:思果.《翻译研究》.中国对外翻译出版公司,2001:17-18)

  38. 词语指称意义与蕴涵意义的确定 • 指称意义的理解与表达 • 蕴涵意义的理解与表达

  39. 指称意义的理解与表达 • 一词多义 • 广义狭义

  40. 蕴涵意义的理解与表达 • 褒贬 • 语体 • 修辞 • 文化

  41. 语体 • 庄严的文体(the Frozen Style ) • 正式的文体(the Formal Style) • 商议性的文体(the Consultative Style) • 随意的文体(the Casual Style) • 亲密的文体(the Intimate Style)

  42. 我们要紧密地团结起来,同心协力,树雄心,立大志,向科学技术现代化进军,力争上游,攀登高峰。我们要紧密地团结起来,同心协力,树雄心,立大志,向科学技术现代化进军,力争上游,攀登高峰。

  43. 先交代我自己吧。我是个算命的先生。我也卖过酸枣,落花生什么的,那可是先前的事了。现在我在街上摆卦摊,好了呢,一天也抓弄个三毛五毛的,老伴儿早死了,儿子拉洋车。我们爷儿俩住着柳家大院的一间北房。(老舍《柳家大院》)先交代我自己吧。我是个算命的先生。我也卖过酸枣,落花生什么的,那可是先前的事了。现在我在街上摆卦摊,好了呢,一天也抓弄个三毛五毛的,老伴儿早死了,儿子拉洋车。我们爷儿俩住着柳家大院的一间北房。(老舍《柳家大院》)

  44. United closely with one heart and concerted efforts and cherishing heroic aspirations and lofty ambitions, we will march toward to modernization of science and technology, aiming high to scale to heights.

  45. First, a few words about myself. I’m a fortune-teller. Once I was a vender of sour dates, ground-nuts and what not. But that was ages ago. Now I keep a fortune-teller’s stall on the side-walk and can scrape up three or five dimes a day at best. My old gal had long kicked up her heels. My son’s rickshaw-boy. That’s wot he’s. We two, father and son, hang up our hats at a south-facing room in the Liu’s compound.

  46. 词语翻译与语言(微观)语境 • 根据语言语境确定原文词义 • 根据语言语境选择译文用词 • 根据语言语境消除歧义 • 语言语境与词语感情色彩的传达

  47. 词语翻译与文化(宏观)语境 • A word is a world. It is history in the briefest form. It is a spot on a page but often a story of great events and movement. You can’t examine a word and learn it well without learning more than a word. (Charles W. Ferguson)

  48. 你信也罢,不信也罢,考试那天他可是出足了风头。他靠一知半解的临时抱佛脚居然考及格了,还受到了表扬。好多人比他强一千倍,反而没及格。你信也罢,不信也罢,考试那天他可是出足了风头。他靠一知半解的临时抱佛脚居然考及格了,还受到了表扬。好多人比他强一千倍,反而没及格。

  49. 生长在乡间,失去了父母与几亩薄田,十八岁的时候便跑到城里来。带着乡间小伙子的足壮与诚实,凡是以卖力气就能吃饭的事他几乎都作过了,可是,不久他就看出来,拉车是件更容易挣钱的事;作别的苦工,收入是有限的;拉车多着一些变化与机会,不知道在什么时候和地点就会遇到一些多于希望的报酬。 (《骆驼祥子》)

  50. If you will believe me (believe it on not, would you believe (it)), he went through with flying colors (successfully; be in the limelight; attract more than enough attention) on the examination day! He went through on that purely superficial “cram”, and got compliments too, while others, who knew a thousand times more than he, got plucked (Brit. Slang: to reject a candidate in an examination).