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Chinese-English Translation. English Department College of Foreign Languages Yangzhou University. Definitions of translation . Translating is the art of recomposing a work in another language without losing its original flavor . —Columbia Encyclopedia

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chinese english translation

Chinese-English Translation

English Department

College of Foreign Languages

Yangzhou University

definitions of translation
Definitions of translation
  • Translating is the art of recomposing a work in another language without losing its original flavor.

—Columbia Encyclopedia

  • Translating is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL).

—J. C. Carford

definitions of translation1
Definitions of translation
  • Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms ofstyle.( 翻译是指从语义到文体在译语中用最切近而又最自然的对等语再现原文的信息。)

—Eugene A. Nida

  • To translate is to change into another language, retaining as much of the sense as one can.

—Samuel Johnson

definitions of translation2
Definitions of translation
  • (Translating ) is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way the author intended the text.

—Peter Newmark

  • Translation is an art that involves the re-creation of a work in another language for readers with a different background.

—Malcolm Cowley

definitions of translation3
Definitions of translation
  • A translation is taken to be any target-language utterance which is presented or regarded as such within the target culture, on whatever grounds.

—Gideon Toury

  • Translation is the production of a functional target text maintaining a relationship with a given source text that is specified according to the intended or demanded function of the target text.

—Christiane Nord

definitions of translation4
Definitions of translation
  • Translation is an externally motivated industrial activity, supported by information technology, which is diversified in response to the particular needs of this form of communication.

—Jean Sager

elements involved in the process of translating
Elements involved in the process of translating

Author of ST—ST—Translator—TT—Readers of TT

elements involved in the process of translating1
Elements involved in the process of translating

Intermediate information receiver

Author of ST—ST—Translator—TT—Readers of TT

Secondary information dispatcher

definitions of translation5
Definitions of translation
  • 翻译是一种跨文化的信息交流与交换活动,其本质是传播,是传播学中一个有特殊性质的领域。


  • 翻译是把具有某一种文化背景的发送者用某种语言(文字)所表述的内容尽可能充分地、有效地传达给使用另一种语言(文字)、具有另一种文化背景的接受者。


definitions of translation6
Definitions of translation
  • 翻译是两个语言社会之间的交际过程和交际工具,它的目的是要促进本语言社会的政治、经济和文化进步,它的任务是要把原作中包含的现实世界的逻辑映像或艺术映像,完好无损地从一种语言译注到另一种语言中去。――张今
sense of language
Sense of language
  • 1.sense of grammar
  • 2.sense of idiomaticness
  • 3.sense of meaning
  • 4.sense of style
  • 5.sense of situation
  • 6.sense of coherence


translation as a task to be accomplished
Translation as a task to be accomplished

It is sometimes said that there is no task more complex than translation—a claim that can be readily believed when all the variables involved are taken into account. Translators not only need to know their source language well; they must also have a thorough understanding of the field of knowledge covered by the source text, and of any social, cultural, or emotional connotations that need to be specified in the target language if the intended effect is to be conveyed. The same special awareness needs to be present for the target language, so that points of special phrasing, local (e. g. regional) expectations, and so on, can all be taken into account.

—Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language

  • 翻译是将一种语言文化承载的意义转换到另一种语言文化中的跨语言、跨文化的交际活动。意义的交流必须通过语言来实现,而每种语言都是一个独特文化的部分和载体。我们在转换一个文本的语言信息时,也在传达其蕴含的文化意义。翻译的本质是释义,是意义的转换。
criteria of translation
Criteria of translation
  • 诸佛典皆在天竺。天竺言语,与汉异音……名物不同,传实不易……仆初嫌其词不雅。维祇难曰:“佛言依其义不用饰,取其法不以严。其传经者,当令易晓,勿失厥义,是则为善。”座中咸曰:“老氏称:‘美言不信,信言不美。’……今传胡义,实且径达。”


criteria of translation1
Criteria of translation
  •   夫译之为事难矣,译之将奈何?其平日冥心钩考,必先将所译者与所以译者两国之文字,深嗜笃好,字栉句比,以考彼此文字孳生之源,同异之故,所有相当之实义,委曲推究,务审其音势高下,相其字句之繁简,尽其文体之变态,及其义理精深奥折之所以然。夫如是,则一书到手,经营反复,确知其意旨之所在,而又摹写其神情,仿佛其语气,然后心悟神解,振笔而书,译成之文,适如其所译而止,而曾无毫发出入于其间,夫而后能使阅者所得之益,与观原文无异,是则为善译也已。――马建忠(1845-1900,《拟设翻译书院议》,1894)
criteria of translation2
Criteria of translation
  • “译”事三难:信、达、雅。求其信,已大难矣。顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也,则达尚焉。……译文取明深意,故词句之间,时有所颠倒附益,斤斤于字比句次,而意义则不倍本文。……至原文词理本深,难于共喻,则当前思后衬,以显其意。凡此经营,皆以为达:为达,即以为信也。《易》曰:“修辞立诚”。子曰“辞达而已!”又曰:“言之无文,行之不远”。三者乃文章正轨,亦即为译事楷模。故信达而外,求其尔雅。


Translation has to do three difficult things: to be faithful, expressive and elegant. For a translation to be faithful to the original is difficult enough, and yet if it is not expressive, it is tantamount to having no translation. Hence expressiveness should also be required….
The Book of Changes says that rhetoric should uphold truthfulness. Confucius says that expressiveness is all that matters in language. He adds that if one’s language lacks grace, it will not travel far. These qualities, then, are the criterion of good writing and, I believe, of good translation too. Hence besides faithfulness and expressiveness, a translator should also aim at elegance. (王佐良 译)
criteria of translation3
Criteria of translation
  • 译者不但要求达义,并且要以传神为目的,译文必须忠实于原文之字神句气与言外之意。


  • 以效果而论,翻译应像临画一样,所求的不在形似,而是神似。


criteria of translation4
Criteria of translation
  • 文学翻译的最高标准可以说是“化”。把作品从一国文字转变成另一国文字,既不能因语言习惯的差异而露出生硬牵强的痕迹,又能完全保存原作的风味,那就算得入于“化境”。


  • 真有灵感的译文,像投胎重生的灵魂一般,令人觉得是一种“再创造”。


criteria of translation5
Criteria of translation

We expect approximate truth in translation…what we want to have is the truest possible feel of the original. The characters, the situation, the reflection, must come to us as they were in the author’s mind and breast, not necessarily by precisely as he had them on his lips.

—Oliver Edwards

criteria of translation6
Criteria of translation
  • A good translator is: 1) To give a just representation of the sense of the original, 2) To convey into his version, as much as possible, in a consistency with the genius of the language with which he writes, the author’s spirit and manners, and 3) To take care that the version has at least the quality of an original performance so as to appear natural and easy. —George Campbell
criteria of translation7
Criteria of translation
  • The best of a real translation is that it should not read like translation at all. —J. B. Philips
  • No translation, however learned, is of any value that does not give at least some of the joy to the readers that was given by its original. —A. J. Arborry
criteria of translation8
Criteria of translation
  • (Tri-ness) Faithfulness, expressiveness, and gracefulness were considered the golden rule in the field of translation.

—Herbert Rotheinstein

criteria of translation9
Criteria of translation
  • 一是易解,二是保存原作的丰姿(鲁迅)
  • 神似(similarity in spirit)(傅雷)
  • 化境(sublimation)(钱钟书)
  • Alexander F. Tytler’s three principles
  • Functional equivalence (Eugene A. Nida)
  • 功能相似,语义相符(similarity in function and correspondence in meaning)
yan fu s three character criterion for translation
Yan Fu’s three-character criterion for translation

Diverse interpretations are made of Yan Fu’s three-character criterion for translation as:

  • “信”——Being faithful to the original(忠实于原文)
  • “达”——Being explicit and smooth(明白晓畅)
  • “雅”——Being elegant in diction (words)(措辞的优雅)
yan fu s three character criterion for translation1
Yan Fu’s three-character criterion for translation
  • “信”(faithfulness)——达旨(将原文说明)
  • “达”(expressiveness)——前后引衬,以显其意
  • “雅”(elegance)——尔雅(用汉以前字法句法)
alexander f tytler
Alexander F. Tytler
  • (1)译文应完全传达原文的思想。(A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work.)
  • (2)译文的风格和笔调应与原文一致。(The style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original.)
  • (3)译文应像原文一样流畅。(A translation should have all the ease of the original composition.)
basic differences between chinese and english
Basic Differences between Chinese and English
  • 一、语系
  •   汉语属汉藏语系(Sino-Tibetan Family),英语属印欧语系(Indo-European Family)。
  • 二、文字
  •   汉语是表意文字(ideographic script),英语是拼音文字(alphabetic script)。
  • 三、语音
  •   汉语是声调语言(tonal language),英语是语调语言(intonation language)。
  • 五、句法(形合与意合)
  • 六、篇章
  • 1、构词法
  • 汉语和英语都能用合成法(compounding)、缀合法(affixation)、音变法(sound-changing)、缩略法(abbreviation)构词,也都通过翻译从外语中借进新词。不同的是,汉语还使用重叠法(reduplication),英语还用转换法(conversion)、逆构词法(back-formation)和截短法(clipping)构词。(p.36)
  • (1)词义涵盖
  • (2)词的搭配
  • 词义相符(semantic correspondence)
  • 词义相异(semantic non-correspondence)
  • 词义空缺(semantic zero)
translation of words and expressions
Translation of Words and Expressions
  • Proper words in their proper places (词适其所) make the true definition of style. (Jonathan Swift)
  • The difference between the right word and the almost right word is really a large matter—‘tis the difference between the lightning bug and the lightning. (Mark Twain)
A word is a world. It is history in the briefest form. It is a spot on a page but often a story of great events and movement. You can’t examine a word and learn it well without learning more than a word. (Charles W. Ferguson) (转引自:思果.《翻译研究》.中国对外翻译出版公司,2001:17-18)
translation of words and expressions1
Translation of Words and Expressions

据文章 “积字为句、积句为段、积句为篇”的创作程式,汉英翻译过程可相应为三个部分:选词、构句、谋篇。

   在翻译实践中,篇章是最终的考核质量的单位,句子是基本的操作单位,而大部分的难题都集中在词汇单位。(Peter Newmark, 1981)(陈宏微2004:69)

There is inevitably a collision of backgrounds, of tradition, of environment, which each language carries with it. The mere understanding of what words and sentences mean is not enough. To understand, each has to enter into the mental landscape, the history, the stage-setting of the other’s mentality. (Stephen Spender英国现代诗人) (转引自:思果.《翻译研究》.中国对外翻译出版公司,2001:17-18)
  • 指称意义的理解与表达
  • 蕴涵意义的理解与表达
  • 一词多义
  • 广义狭义
  • 褒贬
  • 语体
  • 修辞
  • 文化
  • 庄严的文体(the Frozen Style )
  • 正式的文体(the Formal Style)
  • 商议性的文体(the Consultative Style)
  • 随意的文体(the Casual Style)
  • 亲密的文体(the Intimate Style)
United closely with one heart and concerted efforts and cherishing heroic aspirations and lofty ambitions, we will march toward to modernization of science and technology, aiming high to scale to heights.
First, a few words about myself. I’m a fortune-teller. Once I was a vender of sour dates, ground-nuts and what not. But that was ages ago. Now I keep a fortune-teller’s stall on the side-walk and can scrape up three or five dimes a day at best. My old gal had long kicked up her heels. My son’s rickshaw-boy. That’s wot he’s. We two, father and son, hang up our hats at a south-facing room in the Liu’s compound.
  • 根据语言语境确定原文词义
  • 根据语言语境选择译文用词
  • 根据语言语境消除歧义
  • 语言语境与词语感情色彩的传达
  • A word is a world. It is history in the briefest form. It is a spot on a page but often a story of great events and movement. You can’t examine a word and learn it well without learning more than a word.

(Charles W. Ferguson)

If you will believe me (believe it on not, would you believe (it)), he went through with flying colors (successfully; be in the limelight; attract more than enough attention) on the examination day! He went through on that purely superficial “cram”, and got compliments too, while others, who knew a thousand times more than he, got plucked (Brit. Slang: to reject a candidate in an examination).
Born in the countryside and having lost his parents and his barren lands, Xiangzi came to Beijing when he was eighteen. With strong muscle and honesty he did almost the labors by which he could earn his bread. Soon it appeared clear to him that a rickshaw was more paid than to do other labors with limited payment. Besides, drawing a rickshaw may be flexible and of much opportunity and sometimes he may be paid even much more than what he expected.
text types and translation types
Text types and translation types
  • The content-focused text
  • The form-focused text
  • The appeal-focused text
  • The audio-medial text
the content focused text
The content-focused text
  • The principal kinds of text in the content-focused type would include press releases and comments, news reports, commercial correspondence (商业信件), inventories of merchandise (货物清单), operating instructions (操作指南), directions for use (说明书), patent specifications (专利说明), treaties (条约), official documents, educational works (教材), non-fiction books of all sorts ,essays, treatises (专著), reports, theses (论文), and specialized literature in the humanities, the natural sciences, and other technical fields.
the form focused text
The form-focused text
  • Form-focused texts include literary prose (essays, biographies, belles-lettres), imaginative prose (anecdotes, short stories, novellas, romances), and poetry in all its forms (from the didactic to balladry to the purely sentimental).
appeal focused texts
Appeal-focused texts (感召性文本)
  • The appeal-focused text type would include all texts in which the element of appeal is dominant, with advertising, publicity (布告), preaching (布道), propaganda, polemic (辩论), demagogy (劝诱) or satire (讽喻) providing either the purpose or linguistic means of expression.
audio medial texts
Audio-medial texts(听觉媒介文本)
  • Generally speaking, any text that requires the use of and a degree of accommodation to a non-linguistic medium in order to communicate with the hearer, whether in the source or in the garget language. Primary examples would be radio and television scripts, such as radio newscasts and reports, topical surveys (专题调查或评论) and dramatic productions (戏剧创作).
audio medial texts1
Audio-medial texts(听觉媒介文本)
  • Also belonging here are all texts which combine words with music, from the most popular hits of the day to songs and hymns, to choral works and oratorios.
  • Audio-medial texts would also include all stage productions, from musicals to operettas and operas, comedies and tragedies.
eugene a nida
Eugene A. Nida
  • 奈达(Eugene A. Nida)认为:“翻译是指从语义到文体在译语中用最切近而又最自然的对等语再现原文的信息。”(Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.)
language functions nida
Language Functions(Nida)

奈达在From One Language to Another(与J. Waard合著)中将功能分为九类:

(1)表现功能(expressive function)

(2)认知功能(cognitive function)

(3)人际功能(interpersonal function)

(4)信息功能(informative function)

(5)祈使功能(imperative function)

(6)行为功能(performative function)

(7)感情功能(emotive function)

(8)审美功能(aesthetic function)

(9)语言文化功能(metalingual function)

  • Halliday认为语言有达意功能(ideational function)、人际功能(interpersonal function)和组篇功能(textual function)。
  • The ideational function is to organize the speaker’s or writer’s experience of the real or imaginary world, i.e. language refers to real or imagined persons, things, actions, events, states, etc.
The interpersonal function is to indicate, establish, or maintain social relationships between people. It includes forms of address, speech function, MODALITY, etc.
  • The textual function is to create written or spoken TEXTS which cohere within themselves and which fit the particular situation in which they are used. (Jack. C. Richards. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics. 2000:188)
karl buhler
Karl Buhler(布勒尔)

According to Karl Buhler(布勒尔), language serves simultaneously to

1.represent (objectively) (subjectively)

3.appeal (persuasively).

peter newmark
Peter Newmark
  • 英国翻译理论家Peter Newmark将语言功能分为七类:
  • 1、信息功能(informative function),传达信息。如:他是我哥哥。(He is my elder brother.)
  • 2、 表情功能(expressive function),表达感情。如:这里风景多美啊!(What a beautiful view!)
  • 3、祈使功能(vocative function),使听者或读者作出文本所期望的反应。如:请坐下。
4、美感功能(aesthetic function),使感官愉快。如:“层层的叶子中间,零星地点缀着些白花,有袅娜地开着的,有羞涩地打着朵儿的;正如一粒粒的明珠,又如碧天里的星星。” (朱自清:“荷塘月色”)(The leaves were dotted in between the layers with white flowers, some blooming gracefully; others, as if bashfully, still in bud. They were like bright pearls and stars in an azure sky.王椒升译).一寸光阴一寸金(Time is precious)。
5、认知功能(cognitive function),人必须用语言进行思考,用语言“进行分析、综合、抽象、概括等思维活动,形成思想,表达思想。”(王德春,1997:8)这便是语言的认知功能。
  • 6、酬应功能(phatic function),使交际者保持接触,也可反映交际者之间的关系。如:你好。(How do you do!)幸会。(Nice to see you!)
  • 7、元语言功能(metalingual function),指语言解释或命名自身特点的功能。如:语言是一种独特的符号系统。(Language is a unique system of signs.)
  • Denotation
  • Connotation
  • denotation: that part of meaning of a word or phrase that relates it to phenomena in the real world or in a fictional or possible world. For example, the denotation of the English word “bird” is a two-legged, winged, egg-laying, warm-blooded creature with a beak. In a meaning system, denotative meaning may be regarded as the “central” meaning or “core” meaning of a lexical item. It is often equated with referential meaning and with cognitive meaning and conceptual meaning.
  • connotation: the additional meanings that a word or phrase has beyond its central meaning. These meanings show people’s emotions and attitudes towards what the word or phrase refers to. For example, child could be defined as a young human being but there are many other characteristics which different people associate with child, e. g. affectionate, amusing, lovable, sweet, mischievous, noisy, irritating, grubby.
meaning semiotics semiology
Meaning (semiotics, semiology)
  • Intrinsic meaning
  • Referential meaning
  • Pragmatic meaning
meaning within the language
Meaning within the language
  • Meaning on the phonological level
  • Meaning on the lexical level
  • Meaning on the textual level
meaning on the phonological level
Meaning on the phonological level
  • 头韵(alliteration):pretty as a picture, deaf as a doornail (全聋)
  • 半韵(assonance):The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain.
和音(consonance):The splendor falls on castle walls.
  • 尾韵(rhyme):嘴上无毛,说话不牢。(Downy lips make thoughtless slips.)
  • 三个臭皮匠,合成一个诸葛亮。
meaning on the lexical level
Meaning on the lexical level

While the Vietnam vet was fighting, and losing limb and mind, and dying, others stayed behind to pursue education and career.

pun if we don t hang together we ll hang separately
双关语(pun):If we don’t hang together, we’ll hang separately.







1.He and his driving license expired last week.

2.weeping eyes and hearts

3.wage war and peace

4.poor but not wanting in enterprise; poor but with lofty ideals (aspirations);

5.What a heavy load this aeroplane bore! It carried the hearts of the people of the liberated areas, the hopes of the entire Chinese people, and the destiny of our country.

除了‘内战内行’之外,对于‘外战’,就不能不是一个‘外行’。In their element(in one’s accustomed or preferred surroundings,在自己活动范围内,如鱼得水) when fighting internal war , they cannot but be out of their element when it comes to fighting external war.)
回环 (anadiplosis)

1. Beauty is truth, truth beauty.美就是真,真就是美。

2.举杯消愁愁更愁。Lift my cup of wine to drown my sorrow? My sorrow leaves me not.

3.女人如花,花似梦。Women are like flowers, flowers are like dreams.

大 学(孔子)


meaning on the textual level
Meaning on the textual level


Through endless space with rustling sound

The falling leaves are whirled round.

Beyond my ken a yeasty sea

The Yangtze’s waves are rolling free.

Their powers of conversation were considerable. They could describe an entertainment with accuracy, relate an anecdote with humor, and laugh at their acquaintance with spirit. (Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice)她们的健谈本领真是吓人,描述起宴会来纤毫入微,说起故事来风趣横溢,讥笑起朋友来也是有声有色。
Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business.读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。
referential meaning
Referential meaning
  • 直升飞机;回扣;广播讲话;法人实体;体育道德;裁判长;花样滑冰;社会主义市场经济;开发区;畜牧业;社会语言学;知识产权;水土流失;白费力气 (口语);白吃白喝(美口);改革措施;齐步走(term of command)
pragmatic meaning
Pragmatic meaning
  • 表征(indicative)意义
  • 表达(expressive)意义
  • 联想(associative)意义
  • 祈使(imperative)意义
  • 社交(social)意义
man and nature version 1
Man and Nature (Version 1 )
  • The bounty of Nature is equal to everyone, rich or poor, and therefore all men are all strongly attached to her. This is particularly true in the rural areas, where people have kept the same lifestyle for a millennium or so. They plant crops and grapevines, brew wine to drink, feed cows to milk, and weed the garden to grow flowers. They go to church at weekends, and they meet in the square on holidays, playing the violin, singing and dancing. The age-old land remains the same as their family hearth. Each place boasts its folklore and thereby social customs go down.
man and nature version 2
Man and Nature (Version 2)
  • Nature favors men on equal terms regardless of their wealth; therefore, they unanimously put great trust in her. This is particularly true of people in the countryside, where life follows a set pattern for hundreds of years. They grow crops and grapes, brew wine to drink, feed cattle and milk cows, weed the garden and plant flowers. At weekends, they go to church; on holidays, they play musical instruments, sing songs and dance around on public squares. The age-old country fields and gardens remain unchanged, today’s cozy and comfortable land for them all. Thus, each place has its own stories and customs and habits are passed down.
errors and analyses
Errors and Analyses
  • 1、词汇语义对比及选择

组合关系:feed bulls for milk;they go to church to pray and worship

聚合关系:brew wine and drink alcohol; brew spirits and drink wine; brew wine and drink beer

  • 2、连接词使用

无论贫富:no matter rich or poor; no matter people are rich or poor; no matter poverty or wealth (richness)

  • 3、句式结构

种植庄稼和葡萄,酿酒和饮酒…:Growing crops and grapes; Grow crops and grapes

(to be continued)

  • 4、平行结构

They go to the church, praying and to attend church service.

They play the violin, dancing and sing.

People, poor or with property.

  • 5、语法

大小写;拼写(they go to church to prey);时态;大自然(the nature)

idiomatic pairs usually with the linking word of and in english
Idiomatic pairs usually with the linking word of “and” in English
  • noun pairs and verb pairs
  • adverbial pairs and adjectival pairs
  • identical/prepositional pairs
noun pairs and verb pairs
Noun pairs and verb pairs
  • peace and quiet: a period of quiet and calm, often with “have/get/enjoy/some”. It’s impossible to get any peace and quiet in this house with you two arguing all the time.
  • body and soul: physical and mental energy, as in “put body and soul into”. She puts body and soul into her work with the girl guides. She is an inspired leader.
life and limb: risk death or serious injury, as in “risk life and limb”. You’ll risk life and limb if you decided to go white-water rafting after such heavy rainfall.
  • grin and bear it: put up with something unpleasant without complaining because it cannot be changed. I know this hotel isn’t very good, but all the better accommodation is taken, so we’ll just have to grin and bear it.
  • hearth and home: your home and family. the joys of hearth and home.
adverbial pairs and adjectival pairs
Adverbial pairs and adjectival pairs
  • here and there: to or in several places. I could see a number of houses scattered here and there over the hillside.
  • now and again: occasionally. How often do you see her now?-Every now and again. Not as regularly as I used to.
  • first and foremost: most importantly. –Why don’t you get a job that pays more? –First and foremost because I really enjoy the job I’m doing.
short and sweet: not too complicated, as in a speech, often with “keep/make it”. I’ll try and keep this short and sweet. I know you don’t want to stay here longer than you need to. I only needed two minutes with the doctor – the visit was short and sweet.我找医生治病只用了两分钟,别管受罪不受罪,反正时间短。Short but sweet. With faux fur (仿皮草), a dress coat doesn’t need to be long.
safe and sound: not harmed at all. Oh, I’m so glad to have you back home safe and sound. I was beginning to get worried about you.
  • sick and tired: extremely annoyed with someone, often with “of hearing /listening”. I’m sick and tired of hearing your excuses. It’s about time you did an honest day’s work.
touch and go: risky; of uncertain result. From this point on, his work went from strength to strength, and his supervisorbegan to believe that Hawking might, after all, manage to pull together the different threads of his PhD research. It was still touch and go, but a wonderful chance was just around the corner. a touch-and-go state of affairs .
identical prepositional pairs
Identical/prepositional pairs
  • round and round: moving in circles or spinning, usually with “go”. We’re not making any progress by arguing like this. We’re just going round and round in circles.
  • little by little: gradually or slowly. Little by little his health improved and he was able to walk further and further each day.
  • all in all: taking everything into consideration. All in all, it was a successful holiday in spite of some scary moments.
over and above besides in addition to the waiters get good tips over and above wages
over and above: besides; in addition to. The waiters get good tips over and above wages.
  • leaps and bounds: leaps and bounds is really a prepositional idiom as it is always used after the prepositions “by” or “in”. If you do something “by leaps and bounds”, then you are making rapid or spectacular progress: I feel that my English is coming on in leaps and bounds now that I can understand idioms. Her health is improving by leaps and bounds.
  • up hill and down dale: everywhere. We’ve been chasing up hill and down dale trying to find you.
version 1
Version (1)

Father said: “Do you like the peanut?”

We vied in giving the answer: “Yes, we do!”

My elder sister said: “It’s very delicious to eat.”

My bother said: “It is good for making oil.”

I said: “It is inexpensive….”

version 2
Version (2)

“Do you like the peanut?” said my father.

“Yes, we do!” we said eagerly.

“It’s very delicious to eat,” said my elder sister.

“It’s good for making oil,” said my elder brother.

“It’s expensive…,” I said finally.

version 3
  • The weather was not very good that night but, to our great delight, Dad came all the same. “Do you like peanuts?” Dad asked.
version 31
Version (3)

“Yes!” we viedin giving the answer.

“But who can tell me what the peanut is good for?”

“It’s very delicious to eat,” my sister took the lead.

“It is good for making oil,” followed my brother.

“It is inexpensive,” finally came my turn. “Almost everyone can afford it and everyone enjoys eating it. I think this is what it is good for.”

culture and translation
Culture and translation

cultural return (文化回归)


  • 传统的两分法思维方式(形式/意义、直译/意译、原语/译语、作者/译者等)必须让位于整体的、格式塔式随具体情况而变化的思维方式;多维性、似是而非和矛盾冲突是翻译研究的基础;
  • 译文文本不再是原文文本字当句对的临摹,而是一定情境、一定文化的组成部分;
  • 文本不再是语言中静止不变的标本,而是读者理解作者意图并将这些意图创造性再现于另一文化的语言表现。
definitions of culture
Definitions of culture
  • Culture is succinctly defined as “the totality of beliefs and practices of a society.”
  • 一个复合的整体,其中包括知识、信仰、艺术、法律、道德、风俗以及作为社会成员而获得的任何其他的能力和习惯。(泰勒(Edward Tylor).原始文化.1871)
  • 文化是人类在社会历史发展过程中所创造的物质财富和精神财富的总和。(陈宏薇、李亚丹.新编汉英翻译教程.2004:21 )
characteristics of culture
Characteristics of culture





characteristics of culture1
Characteristics of culture






the structure of cultural system
The structure of cultural system





strata of culture
Strata of culture


1)物质形态层(material stratum)

2)典章制度层(institutional stratum)

3)行为习俗层(behavioral and customary stratum)

4)心理或心智活动层(mental stratum)


classifications of culture
Classifications of culture
  • 物质文化(material culture)
  • 制度文化(institutional culture)
  • 心理文化 (mental culture)




物质文化(material culture):指人类创造的物质文明,指一切可见可感的物质和精神产品。它下属的文化有饮食文化、服饰文化、建筑文化、戏曲文化等。


制度文化(institutional culture):指人类的社会制度、宗教制度、生产制度、教育制度、劳动管理分配制度、家庭制度、亲属关系、礼仪习俗、行为方式等社会规约以及与他们有关的各种理论。


心理文化(也称观念文化)(mental culture):指人类的思维方式、思维习惯、价值观念、审美情趣、信仰、心态等。

  • 思维差异
  • 语言差异
  • 信仰差异
  • 价值和态度差异






(4)中国人重形象思维(figurative thinking),英美人重逻辑思维(logical thinking)(陈宏薇、李亚丹:2004:25-32)

  • 文化因素对指称意义的影响
  • 文化因素对语用意义的影响
  • 文化因素对言内意义的影响
  • 文化因素对篇章结构的影响


translatability of culture
Translatability of culture





translatability of culture1
Translatability of culture





version 11
Version (1)

In today’s society which is full of fierce competition, everyone can’t avoid bearing pressure. Some people have serious mental problems due to their inability to get rid of pressure. So, we should learn to face correctly and release pressure. Having a healthy, upward attitude is a good way to overcome pressure.

version 21
Version (2)

In today’s fiercely competitive society, nobody can avoid pressure. Some people have serious psychological problems because of their inability to cope with (deal with, handle) pressure. So, we should learn to face up to pressure, and release it properly. Having a positive, optimistic attitude is an effective way to manage pressure.

version 12
Version (1)

Living in bustling urban cities, people often feel unknown pressure. People all dream of getting rid of their problems sometimes and finding a piece of peace for the heart. In this case, you might as well go out for a stroll in the hills and fields on the weekends to fully relax your body and soul.

version 22
Version (2)

Living in today’s bustling cities, people often feel inexplicably depressed. Everyone dreams of casting aside their problems sometimes and finding peace of mind. In this case, go out for a stroll in the countryside on the weekends to fully relax.

version 13
Version (1)

I heard that universities were as relaxed as a paradise of playing. However, now I see many students reading in the campus grove every morning. Only now I realize that a busy and happy campus life is substantial.

version 23
Version (2)

I heard that campus life was relaxed, and that university was like a fun-filled paradise. However, now I have seen many students reading under the trees in the campus park every morning. I have only realized now that only a campus life which is both busy and happy is meaningful.



  • A person, like a commodity, needs packaging, though going too far is undesirable. A little exaggeration, however, does no harm when it shows the person’s unique qualities to their advantage.
To display personal charm in a casual and natural way, it is important for one to have a clear knowledge of oneself. A master packager knows how to integrate art and nature without any traces of embellishment, so that the person so packaged is no commodity but a human being, alive and kicking.
After his retirement, Qiao Yu takes to fishing. “Beautiful surroundings make people happy, and they are places where water is clear with fish,” he said. “To my mind, the most fascinating natural fishing site is the one in the open countryside, not a pond where you find easy comfort in catching easily-hooked starved fish specially prepared.”
Fishing is a temperament-molding sport that brings health to your body and mind. “Fishing falls into three states,” Qiao Yu remarked. “The first involves in eating the fish. The second is concerned with the enjoyment in your eating, and the third consists mostly in the delight you derive from fishing in a pool of clear water, free from the cares of the world with your body and mind relaxed to the full.”
语 境(Context)

语 境


Collocation or Text Social, cultural, historical

frame of words, background, matrix

Sentence or

or sentence groups

搭配与词语/句与句句群 篇章、文本 社会、文化、历史背景(矩阵)

(联立关系)(刘宓庆,2003: 366)


  • 语境在翻译学意义理论中的重要性:
  • 词语的适境即特定的意义适应于特定的语境,是双语意义换转的最基本要求。
  • 语境是使意义从模糊、游移、不确定进入精确、清晰、确定的固定因素;语境使意义固定。
  • 语境分为语言语境(微观语境)和非语言语境(宏观语境)。微观语境(主要指各式词语搭配,词组即固定词组与非固定词组、分句、句子、语段直至文本)决定指称意义,宏观语境(指文本的题材、主题、交际功能及文本的文化、社会、历史背景)决定超指称意义。
  • 微观语境和宏观语境都可以使词语意义情态化,但一般说来,文本的情态化、风格化的主要手段是宏观语境。
  • 不应该忽视微观语境特别是固定词组(典故性成语)和非常规搭配可能具有的超指称意义,尤其是在情态化、风格化中所起的作用,它们所提供的超指称意义通常是“画龙点晴”式的。
  • (刘宓庆,《翻译与语言哲学》,中国对外翻译出版公司,2001年。 p. 336)
There is inevitably a collision of backgrounds, of tradition, of environment, which each language carries with it. The mere understanding of what words and sentences mean is not enough. To understand, each has to enter into the mental landscape(见识), the history(阅历), the stage-setting of the other’s mentality(学养). (Stephen Spender)
Shenzhou Seven realized the Chinese people’s dream of flying into the space, writing a magnificent poem on the continuing hard work and independent spirit of the nation. Its successful launch is a powerful witness of the increasingly prosperous China. I’d like to develop the astronauts’ spirit of bearing hardships and contribute my efforts to our nation.
Shenzhou VII realized the Chinese people’s dream of flying into space, composing a magnificent poem to the continuing hard work and independent spirit of the nation. Its successful launch is a powerful witness to our country’s increasing prosperity. I’d like to carry on the astronauts’ spirit of perseverance and make my contribution to our nation.
I feel good to be at home. I can eat the hometown dishes my mom makes. Mum says my coming home makes trouble for her, but I know those are not her words at heart. In fact, she expects me. She feels concerned if she can’t see me during Spring Festival. I sometimes miss the school life when stay home for too long. I have more freedom there without mum’s endless talking.
It’s great to be home. I can enjoy the local dishes my mum makes. Mum says that my coming home adds to her troubles, but I know she doesn’t mean it. In fact, she has been expecting me. She feels worried if she can’t see me during the Spring Festival. I sometimes miss campus life when I stay home for too long. I feel more free there without mum’s nagging.