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Theories & Translation (1)

Theories & Translation (1)

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Theories & Translation (1)

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  1. Theories & Translation (1) 2008

  2. Aims of the course • Introducing students to basic translation theories and skills. • Consolidating the learners’ knowledge of English through providing them with sufficient training in translating a variety of sentence and text-types.

  3. Objectives • Upon completing this course, students should be able to: • Make good use of reference books (dictionaries, glossaries, etc.) • Be aware of the basic differences and similarities between certain aspects and conventions of Arabic and English • Translate from English into Arabic a variety of text-types of diversified contexts. • Render suitable translations of texts containing cultural text-specific or non equivalent words or phrases.

  4. Course Units • 1. Unit 1: An Introduction to Translation Comprehension • 2. Unit 2: Translating the English Sentence • 3. Unit 3: Verbs and Verb Phrases • 4. Unit 4: Adjectives, Adverbs and Prepositions • 5. Unit 5: Sentence Expansion and Transformation • 6. Unit 6: Block Language and Abbreviations

  5. Unit (1)An Introduction to Translation Comprehension • Unit Objectives: • Identify the qualities and functions of a good translator. • Recognize the types and demands of translation • Use some of the translation strategies suggested when encountering unfamiliar items. • Choose the dictionary that may best meet your needs. • Know the principles and methods guiding effective word choice. …etc.

  6. An Introduction • 1. What is translation?

  7. An Introduction • 1. What is translation? Meaning Language A ( S L) Language B (TL) Interlingual Communication

  8. An Introduction • What is the difference? Interlingual Communication Interalingual Communication Whatever exercises we engage ourselves in within the same language: paraphrase, explanation, interprestaiotn. e.g. Translation

  9. An Introduction • Translation: (Key words) • Transferring & Meaning • Capturing & Conveying Meaning • Interlingual Communication

  10. An Introduction • Translation: (Key words) • Transferring & (Meaning) • Capturing & Conveying Meaning • Interlingual Communication

  11. An Introduction Give examples! • Meaning Connotation denotation The shades of meaning that are sometimes added to the word (e.g. die/ pass away, mother, friend/comrade) The basic meaning of the word (e.g. die/ pass away, mother, friend/comrade)

  12. Exercise (1) • Translate the following English sentences into Arabic. Example: Sami’s grandmother passed away last month. انتقلت جدة سامي إلى رحمة الله في الشهر الماضي

  13. Exercise (1) • Translate the following English sentences into Arabic. • 1. Ali often goes to bed early • 2. Sarah went shopping last night • 3. Maha is twenty years old • 4. Finally, the police have manged to capture the killer

  14. Exercise (2) • Explain and/or paraphrase the following English: • Example: • I didn’t know that Sue moonlights. • I didn’t know that Sue has another job at night

  15. Exercise (2) • Explain and/or paraphrase the following English: • I turned to Peter for help, but he gave me the cold shoulder. • Jane takes after her mother • The match was called off on account of rain

  16. Exercise (3) • Translate the following English expression into Arabic making sure that you transfer the denotations and connotations of these expressions. (For many of these important colloquial expressions in English, you may have to use colloquial Arabic expressions in order to capture both denotation and connotation) • Example: Boys are boys الولد ولد (لوأنه قاضي بلد)

  17. Exercise (3) • Translate the following English expression into Arabic making sure that you transfer the denotations and connotations of these expressions. • 1. Business is business • 2. let bygones be bygones • 3. Enough is enough

  18. An Introduction • Equivalence • Why equivalence is an important concept in translation?

  19. An Introduction To convey the meaning of the SL idependently of function and form • Equivalence (3 types) To capture the function of the SL To capture the form (the image) of the SL Formal (1) Functional (2) Ideational (3)

  20. An Introduction • Equivalence Examples: The treaty has remained deadletter since then 1. Formal Equivalence: وقد بقيت المعاهدة حرفا ميتا منذ ذلك الوقت 2.Functional Equivalence و قد بقيت المعاهدة حبرا على ورق منذ ذلك الوقت 3.Ideational Equivalence ولم يتم تطبيق المعاهدة منذ ذلك الوقت.\ وقد بقيت المعاهدة غير مفعلة منذ ذلك الوقت

  21. An Introduction • Equivalence • Optimal tranlatability:the functional and formal equivalence may coincide Example: Birds of a feather flock together. إن الطيور على أشكالها تقع

  22. An Introduction: EquivalenceExercise (4) • Translate the following English proverbs into corresponding formal equivalents in Arabic (colloquial Arabic is possible here): Example: A drowning man clutches at a straw. الغريق يتعلق بقشة

  23. An Introduction: EquivalenceExercise (4) • Translate the following English proverbs into corresponding formal equivalents in Arabic (colloquial Arabic is possible here): • 1. All that gitters is not gold • --------------------------------------------- • 2. Necessity is the mother of invention • ----------------------------------------------- • 3. The end justifies the means. • ----------------------------------------------- • 4. A man is known by the company he keeps. • ------------------------------------------------------ • 5. Strike while the iron is hot • ----------------------------------------------------- • 6. There is no smoke without fire

  24. An Introduction: EquivalenceExercise (4) • Translate the following English proverbs into corresponding functional equivalents in Arabic (colloquial Arabic is possible here): • Example: • Like father like son. من شابه أباه ما ظلم

  25. An Introduction: EquivalenceExercise (5) • Translate the following English proverbs into corresponding functional equivalents in Arabic (colloquial Arabic is possible here): • Example: • Like father like son. من شابه أباه ما ظلم

  26. An Introduction: EquivalenceExercise (5) • Translate the following English proverbs into corresponding functional equivalents in Arabic (colloquial Arabic is possible here): • Cleanliness is next to godliness • A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush • Actions speak louder than words • Silence gives consent

  27. An Introduction: EquivalenceExercise (5) • Translate the following English proverbs into corresponding functional equivalents in Arabic which do not feature any formal equivalence at all (colloquial Arabic is possible here): Example: The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak العين بصيرة واليد قصيرة

  28. An Introduction: EquivalenceExercise (5) • Translate the following English proverbs into corresponding functional equivalents in Arabic which do not feature any formal equivalence at all (colloquial Arabic is possible here): 1. One man’s meat is another man’s poison 2. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder 3. After a storm comes a calm 4. A live dog is better than a dead lion.

  29. An Introduction: EquivalenceExercise (5) • Translate the following English expressions into Arabic functional equivalents and then into ideational equivalents: • Example: Instead of solving the problem, Ali added insult to injury. Functional: زاد على الطين بله بدلا من أن يحل المشكلة Ideational: عقد على لامشكلة بدلا من أن يحلها

  30. An Introduction: EquivalenceExercise (5) • Translate the following English expressions into Arabic functional equivalents and then into ideational equivalents: • 1. Zayed turned a deaf ear to his father’s suggestion. • 2. My friend is going to move heaven and earth in order to get the new job. • 3. I want you to tell me the story from A to Z • 4. We should be patient with Ramsy because he’s still wet behind the ear.

  31. An Introduction: Context • The type of eqivalence that the competent translator opts for depends primarily on contextual factors. Which is more important? Author Audience text Explain the relationship between context and equivalence?

  32. An Introduction: Context • Examples: • Text: legal texts • Audience: • Author: the poetry of Nizar Qabbani and Mahmoud Darwish. بيروت يا أنثاي من بين الملايين ‘O Beirut, my female from among millions of wormen’ female Beloved/ lady

  33. An Introduction: ContextExercise (8) • Translate the following extract from an English news report into Arabic: Baby Steps for Peace There will be no Hail May passes in this round of the Arab-Israeli search. As he completed his trip to the Middle East last week, Secretary of State James Baker argued for incremental progress, not a big, bold plan. ‘You have to crawl before you walk, and you have to walk before you run,’ he said in Damascus. Baker didn’t lean on anyone during this visit. The pressure will begin gently this week with Baker’s follow-up phone calls to the leaders he saw, then intensify when President Bush makes his own trip to the region, expected later this spring. Bush aides say.... (From the Time Magazine) • Is formal equivalence a priority in this text type? Why? • What type of equivalence have you used for the metaphors ‘baby steps’ and ‘Hail Mary passes’?

  34. An Introduction: ContextExercise (8) • Baby Steps for Peace There will be no Hail May passes in this round of the Arab-Israeli search. As he completed his trip to the Middle East last week, Secretary of State James Baker argued for incremental progress, not a big, bold plan. ‘You have to crawl before you walk, and you have to walk before you run,’ he said in Damascus. Baker didn’t lean on anyone during this visit. The pressure will begin gently this week with Baker’s follow-up phone calls to the leaders he saw, then intensify when President Bush makes his own trip to the region, expected later this spring. Bush aides say.... (From the Time Magazine) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- خطوات بطيئة اتجاه السلام لن يكون هناك تقدم سريع (حاسم) في هذه الجولة من البحث عن سلام بين العرب وإسرائيلز فمع انتهاء الرحلة التي قام بها وزير الخارجية الأمريكي جيمس بيكر إلى منطقة الشرق الأوسط الأسبوع الماضي, دعى إل تقدم تدريجي وليس إلى خطة شاملة وجريئة. حيث قال في جمسق إن على المرء أن يحبو قبل أن يمشي وأن يمشي قبل أن يركضز ولم يضغط بيكر على أحد في هذه الزيارة حيث سيبدأ الضغط خفيفا هذا الأسبوع عبر متابعة بيكر الهاتفية مع الزعماء الذين رآهم ثم يشتد عندما يقوم بوش برحلته إلى المنطقة والمتوقعة فيما بعد في فصل الربيع الحالي

  35. An Introduction: ContextExercise (9) • Translate the following extract from one of Nizar Qabbani’s poems on the Lebanese situation into English: قبل عام تلاقينا كان جرحي لا يزال في بدايته بعد عام تلاقينا أصبح جرحي قبيلة من الجراح كنت أتصور أن الحزن يمكن أن يصبح صديقا لكننى لم أتصور أنه سيصبح وطنا نسكنه ونتكلم لغته ونحمل جنسيته ككل الأوطان Is formal equivalence a priority in this text type? Why? What type of eqivalence have you used for the creative metaphor قبيلة من الجراح؟

  36. An Introduction: ContextExercise (9) قبل عام تلاقينا كان جرحي لا يزال في بدايته بعد عام تلاقينا أصبح جرحي قبيلة من الجراح كنت أتصور أن الحزن يمكن أن يصبح صديقا لكننى لم أتصور أنه سيصبح وطنا نسكنه ونتكلم لغته ونحمل جنسيته ككل الأوطان ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- A year ago we met. My wound was in its beginning. Ayear later we met. My wouldn became a clan of wounds. I could imagine that sandness would be a friend But I never imagined it would be a homeland, That we live in, And speak its language, And bear its nationality as other homelands.

  37. Types of Translation Free Translation and Adaptation (4) Metaphorical Translation (2) Precise Translation (3) Literal Translation (1)

  38. Types of Translation: Literal Translation • The oldest type of translation practice. • The conveyance of the denotative meaning of phrases and sentences. • In this type of translation, there is a correspondence between the two languages in terms of semantics (meaning) & Grammar • Example: • Ali went to the market yesterday. • ذهب على إلى السوق أمس

  39. Types of Translation: Literal Translation What is the difference between literal and word-for –word translation? (I bought a red car) Literal Translation: أنا اشتريت سيارة حمراء Word-for-word Translation: أنا اشتريت حمراء سيارة

  40. Types of Translation: Literal Translation Word-for-word Translation: أنا اشتريت حمراء سيارة (Bad/ Immature translation! ---especially between languages of remote origins like English and Arabic. • What about ‘structural’ differences between English and Arabic?

  41. Types of Translation: Literal Translation • Explain how literal translation sometimes worlds, at other times does not work in the case of multi-word units? • Examples: • To pay a visit • يدفع زيارة (يقوم بزيارة) • To take after • يأخذ بعد (يشابه) • To rain cats and dogs • تمطر قططا و كلابا (تمطر بغزارة) • Strong tea • شاي قوي (شاي ثقيل)

  42. Types of Translation: Literal Translation • Give literal translations of the following English sentences: • Ali saw a snake in the garden two days a go. • When will you travel to the United States. • My friend speaks German fluently

  43. Types of Translation: Literal Translation)Ex. 10) • Give literal translations of the following English sentences: • Example: Ahmed reads the newspaper every morning. يقرأ أحمد الصحيفة كل صباح • Ali saw a snake in the garden two days a go. • When will you travel to the United States. • My friend speaks German fluently

  44. Types of Translation: Literal Translation (Ex. 13) • Translate the following English collocations into Arabic; (pay special attention to the different collocation patterns in English and Arabic) • Example:deliver a letter يسلم رسالة\ خطابا • Deliver a speech ----------------------------- • Deliver a baby ----------------------------- • Deliver a blow ------------------------------ • Deliver a verdict ------------------------------- • Deliver news -----------------------------

  45. Types of Translation: Literal Translation (Ex.14) • Translate the following Arabic collocations into English; (pay special attention to the different collocation patterns): • Example: to cut diplomatic relations • يقطع العلاقات الدبلوماسية • يقطع الطريق ---------------------------- • يقطع الإشارة الضوئية------------------------- • يقطع عهدا--------------------------- • يقطع إجازته------------------------- • يقطع مسافة طويلة------------------------ • يقطع رخصة سواقه--------------------------------

  46. Types of Translation(2) Metaphorical Translation • - SL Metaphors TL Metaphors Important!... especially in the works of literature

  47. Types of Translation(2) Metaphorical Translation • - SL Metaphors TL Metaphors Important!... especially in the works of literature Creative Metaphors Vehicle (form) + Tenor (content) [inseparable]

  48. Types of TranslationMetaphorical Translation Literature Metaphors (2) Decorative Metaphors (1) Creative Metaphors

  49. Types of TranslationMetaphorical Translation • What is the difference between Creative Metaphors and Decorative Metaphors? Literature Metaphors (2) Decorative Metaphors (1) Creative Metaphors Form (vechile) + Tenor (content)---- INSEPARABLE = Unique Author + Unique Culture

  50. Types of TranslationMetaphorical Translation • Creative Metaphors: Example: عيناك غابتا نخيل ساعة السحر أو شرفتان راح ينأى عنهما القمر • Your eyes are two palm orchards at daybreak. Or two balconies wherefrom the moon was receding.