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  1. 笔译 周二课时考查课

  2. Lecture one • 翻译简介 • definition • the criterion of translation • steps of translation • requirements for the translators

  3. definition • Translation is an activity of reproducing in one language the ideas which have been expressed in another language.

  4. the criteria of translation • accurate, fluent and elegant • 信、达、雅 by 严复 《天演论》

  5. steps of translation • understanding ↓ expression ↓ checking

  6. requirements for the translators • Love our own country • Be knowledgeable: be interested in whatever you know, because you can never know what kind of material you will translate.

  7. The requirements of the course • text book 《英汉翻译实用教程》 by 赵廉直,冯燕屏 • 2 notebooks for exercise and homework: to write a summary of each passage translated • a red pen for correcting mistakes • tools: dictionaries:Strongly recommend you to bring a dictionary to class every time we meet, and whenever you translate • exams: 3 monthly tests 40% class attendance and homework: 20% • final: 40%

  8. Exercises in class • Honesty • What is honesty? Honesty means speaking truth and being fair and upright in act. Considered a virtue, it is admired in every country and every culture. He who lies and cheats is dishonest. Dishonesty is generally looked upon as an evil, and is despised and condemned by the society.

  9. As the English proverb goes, honesty is the best policy. For one thing, if you want to be trusted and respected by your friends, you must be honest. A liar is always looked down upon and avoided by the people around him. For another, if you want to succeed in your work, the first qualification you should have is honesty. It is through honest efforts that Newton and Einstein became great figures in history. Therefore whatever your aim is, you must work honestly to attain it.

  10. However, there are people who try to get benefits by dishonest means. For example, some students copy or cheat on examinations in order to get good marks. The same thing may be said if a merchant who tries to get rich by deceiving customers. Those people may succeed for a time, but sooner or later, they will be caught. In the end, dishonesty will bring them nothing but troubles.

  11. Checking homework 诚实 诚实是什么?诚实就是说真话,做事公正、正值。诚实作为一种美德,在所有的国家和文化中受到尊重。/在所有国家和所有文化中,诚实都被尊为美德。撒谎、欺骗他人为不诚实,通常被看作可耻,受到社会的鄙视和谴责。

  12. 正如一则英语谚语说的,诚实为上策。一方面,一个人若要得到朋友的信任,必须做到诚实。人们总是看不起说谎话的人,不愿与之为伍;另一方面,一个任若要在工作中取得成绩,首先要具备诚实的品格。正是通过诚实的工作,牛顿和爱因斯坦才成为了历史上的巨人。所以说,不论一个人的目标为何,一定要诚实地实现它。正如一则英语谚语说的,诚实为上策。一方面,一个人若要得到朋友的信任,必须做到诚实。人们总是看不起说谎话的人,不愿与之为伍;另一方面,一个任若要在工作中取得成绩,首先要具备诚实的品格。正是通过诚实的工作,牛顿和爱因斯坦才成为了历史上的巨人。所以说,不论一个人的目标为何,一定要诚实地实现它。

  13. 但是,的确又是通过不诚实的手段获得利益。就比如说,一些学生为了得高分而抄袭他人的作业或者在考试中作弊;一些商人也是如此,试图通过欺骗顾客而谋取钱财。那些人只可能得意一时,迟早,他们的行为都会被揭穿。最终,不诚实只能给他们带来麻烦而矣,别无它物。

  14. Lecture two • 英汉差异

  15. I. Comparison/difference of Chinese and English • 汉语先说事,英语先表态 • e.g.今天我在这里讲话,感到非常荣幸。 • I am greatly honored today to have the pleasure of speaking here. • 听说你们开发成功了一项新产品,我们十分感兴趣。 • We are all interested in the new product you have successfully developed.

  16. 2 逻辑语序不同 • 汉语:汉语按时间顺序,先发生的先说,后发生的后说 • 英语:考虑信息的主体,语法结构 • Chinese: 时间+地点+方式(大→小) • English: 方式+地点+时间(小→大) • e.g. 昨天下午两点多,我在学校大门口碰见的老张。 • I saw Mr. Zhang ate the gate of the school at around 2:00 o’clock yesterday afternoon. • 该货轮于2006年8月22日上午8时离开加拿大魁北克,将于2006年12月3日到达英国伦敦。 • The ship left Quebec, Canada, at eight o’clock on the morning of August 22, 2006 and is due to arrive in London, England, on December 3, 2006.

  17. 汉语靠词序,英语讲句型。 • 词序:汉语的词序与语序有较强的语法功能。 • 英汉有的词序不同:衣食住 :food, clothing and housing • 前后:back and forth • 迟早:sooner or later • 左右:right and left • 东南西北:north, south, east and west • 汉语表达委婉,试探,礼貌程度等方面,更多的使用词汇手段,而英语更多使用句法。 • 汉语:“吧”,“好吗”“可不可以” 表示祈使 • 例:关上门吧。 • Would you please close the door? • Can you /won’t you close the door? • Close the door, will you? • 如蒙…… • We would …if you could…? • 如蒙汇来商品目录以及现行的销售受条款,我们将不胜感激。 • We would appreciate it very much if you could send us your catalog together with the current sales terms.

  18. 汉语的灯笼结构与英语的吊灯结构 • 汉语是一种相对独立的像一盏盏红灯笼一样的线性结构,而英语是一种枝形吊灯一样的树形结构。 • ○─○─○─○─○─○ │ • —————— • │ │ │ • 汉语的语法关系直接依赖于语义,语序和逻辑来表达。 • 例:我公司厂房标准,设备齐全,技术力量雄厚,经验丰富,质量精良。 • Our company has standard production premises complete with full lines of equipment. Having a strong team of technicians with rich experience, the company makes products of top quality. • 英语:英语语法讲究句型,主谓结构是全句的框架,所有的修饰,限制,补充等成分等于附属,借助各种连词,介词,关系词与主语框架连接,形成一种树形结构。

  19. 汉语重意合(parataxis),英语重形合(hypotaxis)。汉语重意合(parataxis),英语重形合(hypotaxis)。 • 例:下雨就不去了。(靠内在联系,逻辑关系) • We shall not go when it rains. (靠连词,时态等)

  20. 汉语突出人称,英语突出物称 • 汉语多用人称话的说法,行为的主体(主语)往往由人或以人为本的机构出面,也就是说汉语主语多是人,或是无主句。 • 英语的修辞的特点之一在于其物称得倾向,即英语的具有以抽象名词和物质名词为主语的特点。英语在选择主语时,比汉语更多的采用无生命的事物,不能主动发出动作的主语,例如: • It is my hope that…(而不是I hope that…) • It is 句型 it is +adj. that… • It is said that… • There be 句型 • 被动句的使用 • e.g. 我们很遗憾的发现789号商品所含的那种化学成分没有达到合同规定的百分比。 • Regrettably it was found that the chemical content of Iterm789 is not up to the percentage contracted.

  21. 汉英的视角不同 • 您好,我是南航666号售票员。 • Good morning. Booking office, China southern airlines. What can I do for you? • 汉英的修辞手段不同 • 汉英的背景和文化差异

  22. 总结 • 汉英翻译的注意事项 • 多掌握背景资料 • 学点专业知识 • 合理的使用字典和工具书。(充分利用网络) • 译者应注意平时的学习和积累;

  23. Lecture three • 翻译的方法

  24. 翻译理论与技巧 • 汉语词语的翻译 • 直译法 • 下岗工人laid-off workers 四项基本原则 the Four Cardinal Principle 一国两制 one country with two systems 纸老虎 paper tiger • 意译法 • 如果采用直译能准确传达意义的,就直译,如果不能译出原文意思,特别是不能译出隐含意义的就不能采用意译。 • 白衣天使 nurse 电老虎 big power consumer • 灵魂的工程师, teacher 打白条 write out an IOU(I owe you) • 傍大款 find a sugar daddy 黑色收入 illegal income • 音译法 • 武术 wushu 麻将 mah-jong 馄饨 wonton 人参 ginseng风水 feng shui • 音译、直译、意译相结合 • 功夫片kungfu film 狗不理包子 Gou Buli buns • 秧歌剧 yangge opera 下海 plunge into the sea of business

  25. 词义空缺的翻译策略 • 由于文化和与语言的差异,一种语言有的词在另一种语言中也许没有对应或契合的词,就会出现词义空缺,例如汉语中的节气。 • 音译 • 普通话putonghua 广东化、广东人 Cantonese 气功 qigong • 旗袍 cheongsam 饺子jiaozi • 直译 • 四书 Four Books 五经Five Classics 文化大革命 Cultural Revolution 八字 Eight Characters • 意译 • 科举imperial examinations 翰林院 Imperial Academy 春节Chinese New year’s Day 千里马 talent • 解释性翻译 • 班门弄斧 show off one’s skill with the axe before Lu Ban(the master carpenter) /to teach a fish to swim

  26. 英汉成语的比较 • 比喻的不同 • 雨后春笋:like the mushroom • 杀鸡取卵:Kill the goose that lays the golden eggs. • 大海捞针:Look for a needle in a haystack. • 瓮中之鳖:Like a rat in a hole. • 无风不起浪:No smoke without fire. • 日间不做亏心事,夜半敲门心不惊:A good conscious is a soft pillow. • 非驴非马:Neither fish nor Fowl. • 是狼改不了吃肉,是狗改不了吃屎:You cannot make a crab walk straight. • 补充: • silly ass 笨蛋 lame duck 处于困境中无法自理的人/事 • queer fish 怪人 early bird 早起,早到的人 lucky dog 幸运儿 black sheep 害群之马 dark horse 黑马 • drowned rat 落汤鸡 rat in a hole 瓮中之鳖

  27. 风俗习惯的不同 • 褒义: • dog tired:      非常疲倦 • to dog one’s step   跟某人走 • top dog       重要的人 • lucky dog      幸运儿 • as faithful as a dog  像狗一样忠诚 • Love me, love my dog. 爱屋及屋 • Every dog has its day.  凡人皆有得意的日子 • 贬义: • a surly dog       性情乖戾的人 • that/this dirty dog    那个狗东西 • He is in the doghouse.  他名声扫地了。 • He was a bit of a dog in his younger days. • 他年轻时过着花天酒地的生活。

  28. 历史背景的不同 • 中国有很多的农谚: • 斩草除根:cut the weed and dig up the roots—stamp out the source of troubles • 材多火焰高:Many hand s make light work • 瑞雪兆丰年:A snow year, a rich year. • 解甲归田:take off one’s armor and return to the land; be demobilized • 揠苗助长:try to help the shoots grow by pulling them upwards—spoil things by excessive enthusiasm • 枯木逢春:spring comes to the withered tree—get a new lease of life • 顺藤摸瓜:follow the vine to get the melon—track down sb/sth by following the clues • 树大招风:a tall tree catches the wind—a person in a high position is liable to be attacked • 雨后春笋:just like the mushrooms • 瓜熟蒂落:when a melon is ripe it falls off its stem—things are easily settled once conditions are ripe. • 桃李满天下:have pupils everywhere( said in praise of teacher) • 捡了芝麻,对了西瓜:pick up the sesame seeds but overlook the watermelon—concentrated on the minor things to neglect the major things • 英语很大一部分成语源于航海事业 • to know the ropes 懂得秘诀,内行 • to tide over 顺利渡过 • to sink or swim: 好歹;不论成败 • to go with streams 随波逐流 • to clear the decks 准备战斗 • all at sea 无主意/茫然不知所措 • plain sailing 一帆风顺 • to rest on one’s oars 暂时歇一歇 • to keep one’s head above the water 奋力图存; 不负债,不陷入困境

  29. 部分成语出自历史故事,寓言,故事等 • 庄周梦蝶:庄子《齐无论》 自由,快乐,悠然自得;如果能打破生死、务我的界限,则无往而不快乐 • 孟母三迁:《烈女传》孟柯 其母三次搬家 倚墓而居→集市旁→学校旁 学礼仪,知识 • 闻鸡起舞:晋代,祖狄:发奋图强,有志之士,及时振作 • to meet one’s waterloo, 失败,功败垂成, • grin like a Cheshire cat 咧着嘴傻笑 Alice Wonderland • blow hot and cold 朝三暮四 <伊索寓言》 • love is blind 爱情使人看不到缺点the merchant of Venice

  30. 直译法 • to break the record 打破纪录 • to show one’s card 摊牌 • armed to the teeth 武装到牙齿 • to turn over a new page 翻开新的一页 • a wolf in sheep’s clothing 披着羊皮的狼 • the open-door policy 门户开放政策 • shuttle diplomacy 穿梭外交 • the cold war 冷战 • Blood is thicker than water. 血浓于水 • A rolling stone gathers no moss. 滚石不生苔 • He laughs best who laughs last. 谁笑在最后,谁笑得最好。 • 三思而后行 look twice before you leap • 趁热打铁 strike while the iron is hot. • 混水摸鱼 fish in troubled waters • 火上浇油 pour oil on the flames • 守口如瓶 keep the mouth shut like a bottle • 河涸鱼竭 The river dried up and the fish in it died. • 以眼还眼,以牙还牙 An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.

  31. 意译法 • 根据上下文 • after one’s own heart 称心如意 • a bed of roses 安乐窝 • to play a good game 手法高明 • at all hazards 孤注一掷 • to carry(hold) one’s head high 趾高气扬 • to rain cats and dogs 下倾盆大雨 • to play one’s last card 采取最后手段 • Every dog has his day. 人人皆有得意时 • Don’t cross the bridge till you get it. 不必担心过早 • Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched. 不可过早乐观。 • Every cloud has a silver lining. 天下没有绝对坏的事。 • 手忙脚乱be in a rush • 望子成龙expect one’s son to become an outstanding personage • 融会贯通 gain a thorough understanding of something • 不入虎穴,焉得虎子Nothing ventured, nothing gained.

  32. 解释性翻译 • to shed crocodile tears 鳄鱼的眼泪,假慈悲 • Achille’s heel 阿基利斯的脚后跟,致命弱点 • Pandora’s box 潘多拉的盒子,罪恶和灾难得渊薮 • to make hay while the sun shines. 趁着晴天晒干草,勿失时机 • A little pot is soon hot. 小易热,人小火气大/ 狗肚子装不了二两油 • Ill news comes apace. 好事不出门, 坏事传千里。 • 河清海晏 • The yellow river is clear and the sea is tranquil—there is peace and tranquility throughout the country • 东施效颦 • Dongshi, an ugly woman, trying to imitate the famous beauty by knitting her brows, only to make herself all the uglier—blind imitation with ludicrous effect.

  33. 总结 • 灵活运用各种翻译方法 • 没有纯粹的直译和意译,往往是交叉运用 • 把握原文

  34. Lecture four • 翻译中对词语的处理

  35. 翻译理论和技巧 • How to use dictionary.工具书的应用 • 英汉词义的比较 • 词义的选择、引申和褒贬

  36. 在学习英译汉的时候,译者要根据词的基本释义,在上下文中斟酌情况加以运用和引申在学习英译汉的时候,译者要根据词的基本释义,在上下文中斟酌情况加以运用和引申 • 从全文的主体看,从前后的叙述和本句的叙述中看,词的解释是否合理; • 从前都的叙述和本句部分的叙述中看 • 注意词典中的例证、词语和复合词。

  37. e.g. The world is scraping bottom in the deepest economic slump in a half-century. • scrap the bottom of the barrel 利用最后一招 • e.g. You cannot build a ship, a bridge or a house if you don’t know how to make a design or how to read it. • 不会制图或看不懂图纸,就不可能造船、架桥或盖房子。

  38. 英汉词义的比较 • 指称意义的英汉语比较 • A. 字面意义的差异 :语义错位 词汇缺省 • B 文化意义的差异 • 言内意义的英汉语比较e.g. 笑话,因为文化背景的不同 • 语用意义的英汉语比较 正式语和非正式语区别严格; 专业性的词汇的正式程度高; 单个动词比相对应的动词短语证实; 使用名词或名次词组要比动词正式; 正式语体与非正式语体的句法差别明显。

  39. *词义的选择、引申和褒贬 • 根据上下文及逻辑关系, • 词性确定词义, • 看搭配。 • 学科领域

  40. Exercises 1. By the first century the making pf paper in some parts of China had been well developed and had been very common. 2.By the 13th century, printing had developed further. 3. Several attempts have been made through the years to develop the deposit. 4. Photographers return and the photos are quickly developed.

  41. 5. And thirdly, computer games help develop children’s interest in computer. • 6. As young Goddard grew into manhood, he developed tuberculosis. • As early as his second film, Chaplin had developed his own manner of acting, the one that was to become world famous.

  42. 词义的引申: A:抽象化的引申 • e.g. For many families, two incomes are a necessary. • 对许多家庭来说,夫妻俩都去上班赚钱是迫不得已的事。 • Every life has roses and thorns. • 每个人的生活中都有苦有甜。

  43. B: 具体化的引申 • e.g. Wait a moment. Let me put on my things. • 等一等,让我把衣服穿上。

  44. C:典故的引申 • e.g. He is another Shylock. The Merchant of Venice • 他又是一个放高利贷者. • “My father is really a Hitler,” he said to his friend. • 他对朋友说到,“我爸爸就是个大独裁者.”

  45. Exercise On the wings of hope, of love, of joy, Miss Meadows sped back to the music hall, up the aisle, up the steps, over to the piano.

  46. 词义的褒贬 • A 注意词本身的褒贬的含义; • B 根据上下文判断出词义的褒贬。 • e.g. She boasted that her book Yueziwas a best seller, and was highly praised by the readers. 她鼓吹说自己的书《月子》成了畅销书,并受到读者的高度评价。 • He wanted to fool me into buying the insurance, which is only a waste of money for me. But luckily, he didn’t succeed. • 他想骗我买那份保险,对我来说那只是浪费钱,幸好他没有得逞。

  47. 结论 • 总之,在翻译的时候词汇的选择、运用一定要和上下文意思紧密地联系在一起。

  48. Assignments • It is not difficult to insure high-speed growth of the national economic through expanding investment on a large scale, but it is difficult to realize effective economic growth and raise the enterprises’ capital profit rate and productivity. It is better to change investment structure and orient the investment to infrastructure industries of the national economy such agriculture, energy, and communications than to blindly channel capital into real estate and securities;

  49. however, investment in the infrastructure industry will not (ate least in the short term) bring high economic benefits. It is imperative to orient the investment to enterprises with better economic benefits, but in China, enterprises with better economic benefits, State-owned enterprises in particular, have been concentrated on the highly monopolized industries such as tobacco, petrochemicals and telecommunications, and the high-speed development of theses enterprises will play a limited role in promoting the whole of society.