A Methodology For TranslationJean-Paul Vinay& Jean Darbelnet TetiSumarni 1102601
Direct & Oblique Translation Direct Translation Oblique Translation Transposition Modulation Equivalence Adaptation • Borrowing • Calque • Literal Translation
Borrowing • A word taken directly from another language, e.g., the English word bulldozer • pure borrowing (Rice Cooker) • naturalized borrowing(Computer-komputer)
Calque • Calque. A foreign word or phrase translated and incorporated into another language, • e.g., fin de semainefrom the English weekend • interest ratetranslated intotingkat suku bunga.
Literal TranslationTerjemahanHarfiah • Literal translation. Word for word translation, e.g., The ink is on the table and L’encreestsurla table. • Literal translation translates the meaning of every word in the original language, understood correctly in context, into its nearest English equivalent, and attempts to express the result with ordinary English word order and style, as far as that is possible without distorting the meaning of the original. • The main point is that essentially literal translations attempt to represent the meaning of every word in the original in some way or other in the resulting translation.
Shift • Transposition A shift of word class, i.e., verb for noun, noun for preposition e.g., Expéditeurand From. When there is a shift between two signifiers, it is called crossed transposition, e.g., He limped across the street and Il a traversé la rue en boitant. • Modulation A shift in point of view. Whereas transposition is a shift between grammatical categories, modulation is a shift in cognitive categories.
Transposition Shift A shift from singular into plural (plural into singular) bunga-bunga : flowers banyakrumah : many houses tigamobil: three cars sepasangcelana: a pair of trousers
A structural change that involves word-position in phrase 1 - 2 - 3 3 - 2 - 1 rumah - bercatmerah - yang besar big - red - house
long - dark – hair rambut - hitampekat - yang panjang Splendid ancient electric train keretaapilistrikkunoyang sangatbagus (Machali, 2000)
phrase with adverb 1 – 2 – 3 3 – 1 - 2 highly - recommended - system sistem - yang sangat - direkomendasikan
A structural change that involves word-position in sentence Isutentang HAM sudah kami bahassemenjak lima tahun yang lalu. We have been discussing the issue of human rights since five years ago Bukuiniharuskamubaca You must read the book
a change in part of speech noun + noun noun + noun adverb + verb verb + noun adj + noun verb + adj
mesinpembunuh killing machine bahankimia chemical material partaipolitikpoliticalparty ...is categorically prohibited. …dikategorikanterlarang.
in sentence …… for the pursuit of happiness. …untukmeraih/ mengejarkebahagiaan.
from explicit into implicit (implicit into explicit) Priayangberdiri di sanaituadalahpamansaya The man (who is) standing there is my uncle. implicit The man standing there is my uncle
from clause into particular type of phrase (phrase into clause) – (phrase with adjective verb) bayi yang menangis crying baby binatangyang berpikir thinking animal burung yang berkicau singing bird Jendralyang senantiasatersenyum Smiling General
from word into phrase or clause (clause into word) cozy suasananyaman, hangat, danakrab incommunicado kondisiterputuskomunikasidengandunialuar interchangeability kondisibisasalingdipertukarkan
ModulationModulasi • Modulation. A shift in point of view. Whereas transposition is a shift between grammatical categories, modulation is a shift in cognitive categories. Vinay and Darbelnetpostulate eleven types of modulation: abstract for concrete, cause for effect, means for result, a part for the whole, geographical change, etc., e.g., the geographical modulation between encre de Chine and Indian ink. • you are going to have achildtranslated asAnda akan menjadi seorang bapak. • I cut my fingertranslated as Jariku teriris, bukan saya memotong jariku.
Modulation specific meaning general meaning rice rice rice rice brother, sister brother, sister padi gabah beras nasi kakak adik
paklek : paman : uncle pakde : paman : uncle assassinate : membunuh Murder : membunuh kill : membunuh Anggur : grape anggur : wine mendengar : listen mendengar : hear
coining a new term for a series of word train : berlatih Training : pelatihan trainer : pelatih trainee : pesertapelatihan
Equivalence • Equivalence. This accounts for the same situation using a completely different phrase, e.g., the translation of proverbs or idiomatic expressions like, Comme un chiendansun jeude quillesand Like a bull in a china shop. • Vinayand Darbelnetview equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure which replicates the same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording. They also suggest that, if this procedure is applied during the translation process, it can maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text.
Adaptation • Adaptation. A shift in cultural environment, i.e., to express the message using a different situation, e.g. cycling for the French, cricket for the English and baseball for theAmericans. • Re-writing process of the source text into the target text. • Usually applied in translating poetry and drama • Replacing cultural elements of the source language by the cultural equivalence in the target language. Example: as white as snow -----seputih kapas, notseputih saljuas snow is not familiar in the target language.