Pope Paul III (1534-1549) During this time, the major revival/reform movements in the Catholic Church came under Pope Paul III.
Engraving of the Council of Trent To enact reform, the Pope called for a General Council at Trent in 1545. This would be one of the three most important Church Councils in history (along with Nicea 325 and Vatican II (1962-65).
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) Perhaps the most effective of all the counter-reform/revival movements within the Roman Church was the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order) founded by Ignatius Loyola.
First edition of “Spiritual Exercises” (1548) Loyola’s book, “Spiritual Exercises”, was the textbook of the Jesuits. This book is still in print today. Along with vows of poverty, purity, and chastity, the Jesuits swore absolute allegiance and obedience to the Pope.
Frances Xavier (1506-52) Jesuit Missionaries like Frances Xavier made significant progress in foreign missions in India, the East Indies, and Japan.
Matthew Ricci (1552-1610) Although Xavier encountered a closed door in China, his successor Matthew Ricci was able to plant Christianity in China although it would wither away within 100 years.
Pope Paul III was the most significant force behind the Catholic Counter-Reformation. He: • • approved the Jesuit order. • • set up the Inquisition. • • called the Council of Trent.
The Council of Trent” declared: • that the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible by Jerome with the Apocrypha was the “official” Bible. • that the teachings and traditions of the Church were of equal authority with the Bible. • that salvation was by faith and subsequent works.
The Council of Trent declared (continued): • that the seven sacraments were reaffirmed. • that the doctrine of transubstantiation was reaffirmed. • adoption of a confession of faith (Tridentine Creed) which summarized the Council. • that Roman Catholic clergy and teachers were required to swear personal allegiance to the Pope.
The Council of Trent: • adopted Aquinas theology as official dogma. • assured a permanent split with Protestants. • advocated higher standards of morality for clergy. • established Catholic universities. • approved the Vulgate Bible. • sealed the defeat of “counciliarism” (which sought to control the Pope through Church Councils). • entrenched Papal authority.
Ferdinand II (1578-1637) When the pro-Catholic Ferdinand II of Spain was also named King of Bohemia in 1618, the Protestants revolted and war started. Ferdinand attempted to remove Protestantism from Bohemia. The Protestant Bohemians offered the crown to a German Calvinist ruler, Frederick V.
Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632) In 1630 Europe was invaded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who was a Lutheran. By 1632 he had defeated all the Catholic forces and was in control in Europe. But Adolphus was killed in battle in 1632.
Ratification of the treaty The Thirty Years War ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia which ushered in the modern era of world and Church History.
Table Discussion Are denominations good or bad? Share reasons for your opinion.
Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) was an Arminian who developed a governmental view of the atonement which left out the sacrificial substitution part and emphasized the theory that Christ only made the penal payment necessary to satisfy God’s justice. Grotius is also known as the Father of International Law.
Martin Luther (1483-1546) The Catholic peasant/monk who dared to challenge the Roman Church on its basic theology and practices. Luther is the man God used to begin the Protestant Reformation which shaped the form of modern Church History and Christianity.
Philip Melanchton (1497-1560) He served as Luther’s theologian and helped write and formulate Protestant Theology.
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) The Swiss reformer who started the Reformation in Switzerland and to whom evangelical Christianity traces its heritage, especially as to his view of the Lord’s supper.
John Calvin (1509-1564) The French born reformer who led the Calvinistic reforms in Geneva, Switzerland which absorbed Zwingli’s movement and became the driving force behind the Reformation.
Pope Leo X (1475-1521) The Pope during Luther’s early “protest” who excommunicated Luther and made the Catholic opposition to Protestantism quite clear and strong.
Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) Archbishop of Canterbury under Henry VIII who helped shape the Protestant/Puritan movement in England. He also helped form Anglican Theology, wrote the Book of Common Prayer, and was executed under Mary Tudor.
Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) The able Puritan religious/political and military leader who led the successful revolt of Puritans against the King of England. He helped reform the Church of England and promoted religious toleration.
Pope Paul III (1534-1549) The very effective Pope who led the Catholic Counter-Reformation, set up the Inquisition and Index, and presided at the Council of Trent. He helped shape modern Roman Catholicism.
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) The mystic founder of the Jesuit Society which promoted religious education and missionary activity during the Counter-Reformation.
Francis Xavier (1506-1552) The Jesuit who fostered great missionary efforts in the Far East and India during the Counter-Reformation.
Gustavus Adolphus (1630-1632) The Lutheran Swedish King who invaded Europe and reversed the tide of the Thirty Year’s War in favor of the Protestants. This ultimately led to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 which established religious toleration for Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists.
Survey of Church History Page 215
The 12 periods of Church History are: • 1. Era of the Gospel 4 B.C. – 33 A.D. • 2. Era of the New Testament 33 – 100 A.D. • Early Apostolic 33 -70 A.D. • •Late Apostolic 70-100 A.D. • 3. Era of the Universal “Catholic” Church 100 – 312 A.D. • 4. Era of the “Christian” Roman Empire 312 – 590 A.D. • 5. Era of the Medieval Church 590 – 800 A.D. • 6. Era of the Holy Roman Empire 800 – 1054 A.D. • 7. Era of the Crusades 1054 – 1305 A.D. • 8. Era of the Renaissance and Rise of Nation-States 1305 – 1517 A.D. • 9. Era of the Reformation 1517 – 1648 A.D. • 10. Era of Rationalism and Revival 1648 – 1789 A.D. • 11. Era of Liberalism, Progress and Missions 1789 – 1914 A.D. • 12. Era of Modern Ideologies, Secularism, and Humanism 1914 – present
Louis XIV (1643-1715) The long reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715) put France in a dominant position, and she would come close to waging war successfully against England over North America.
The siege and taking of Quebec, 1759 England would eventually win the battle with France for control of America in the Seven Years’ War (1756-63). In America this was known as the French and Indian War.
King George III (1738-1820) Britain would rule supreme in Europe, having defeated both France and Spain. But these defeated foes of England would soon help the English colonies in America break away from England under King George III.
Charles II (1630-1685) Earlier, with the restoration of Charles II to England’s throne in 1660, persecution of Puritans increased as the Episcopal Church of England was the only recognized State religion.
William and Mary (Husband and wife with Joint rule of the United Kingdom By 1688 Protestants had retaken the throne in the persons of William and Mary. In 1669 an Act of Toleration was passed which not only established freedom of religion but promoted the spiritual apathy which led to revivals beginning in 1738.
Peter the Great (1689-1725) A political awakening under Peter the Great (1689-1725) pushed Russia onto the world scene and some Westernizing of her culture occurred.
Catherine the Great (1762-96) Subsequent progress was made under Anna(1730-1740) and Catherine the Great toward making Russia a force in Europe and the world.
Copernicus (1473-1543) Copernicus had earlier laid the groundwork with his discovery that the sun was the center of the universe – not the earth.
Johann Kepler (1571-1630) Johann Kepler reasoned that there was a magnetic force (gravity) in the universe that caused the movement of planets, etc.
Galileo (1564-1642) Galileo invented the telescope and opened the minds of man to ponder his origin.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) It was Sir Isaac Newton who set forth the explanation which gave rise to momentous changes in thinking. In mathematical terms Newton explained how the Law of Gravity worked to unify and harmonize the universe.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) In other fields of science, Francis Bacon, in the prior age had promoted the inductive method of reasoning and scientific investigation which started with no dogmatic assumption (such as faith in God) but worked from data to arrive at a conclusion. It generally rejected authority.
John Locke (1632-1704) It was Englishman John Locke (1632-1704) during his exile in France who as a philosopher advanced the empirical idea that man’s mind started as a blank and knowledge was acquired through experience.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Rene Descartes paved the way for the ultimate expression of religious rationalism to that date when he expressed a philosophy based on man doubting everything except his own existence and ability to reason. “I think therefore I am”.
Deism developed from the rationalism of men like Newton and others and held the following basic ideas: • God is the Supreme Being though not necessarily as described in the Bible. • God is transcendent (above his creation). • God is not immanent (involved in His creation). • God is the first cause of all things and is discoverable by natural reason.
(Deism continued) The natural laws of the universe (like gravity) were put in place by God and are discoverable by man’s reason. • There is no place for miracles or divine revelation in the Bible, because they cannot be proved rationally. • Christ was a great teacher only, and the Bible is a good ethical guidebook. • Worship of God is best expressed by personal piety and virtue expressed in ethical behavior. • God is interested in man but not involved with him.
Rousseau (1712-1778) and Voltaire (1694-1778) Deism was spread rapidly by Frenchman like Rousseau and Voltaire who represented the skepticism of the “French Enlightenment”.
Denis Diderot (1713-1784) The work of the Deists was perhaps best summarized in Diderot’s (1713-1784) French Encyclopedia. It was a a systematic dictionary of the sciences, arts, and crafts with the aim of “changing the way people think”.
David Hume (1711-1776) Meanwhile, the Scottish philosopher David Hume expressed rationalism in terms of skepticism, doubting everything and demonstrating that nothing could be proved with certainty.
Joseph Butler (1692-1752) Joseph Butler in England, effectively countered the Deists’ philosophy.
Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Paine Deism spread both to Germany and to America where many leading men of the American Revolution of 1776 against England were Deists –Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Paine were all deists.
Christian Wolff (1679-1754) Christian Wolff asserted that all Christian doctrines had to be proved by human reasoning with mathematical precision. Thus, he taught that unless Bible doctrines could be proved with the mind, they should not be believed.