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  1. Chapter 5: Supporting Details and Organizational Patterns Breaking Through: College Reading, 8/e by Brenda Smith ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  2. What is a Detail? • Details develop, explain, and prove the main idea. • Details are facts, descriptions, and reasons that make the material interesting. • Details answer questions and paint visual images. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  3. Levels of Importance • Usually the general topic is stated first, followed by subcategories of details, which may be further subdivided into specific examples. • An outline or diagram can help you see this. • Example: • Types of Trees • Conifers • Pine • Spruce ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  4. Distinguishing Major and Minor Details Ask yourself: • What details are needed to explain or prove the main idea? [major] • What details are included just to make the passage more interesting? [minor] ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  5. Primary Support (major) first second last in addition Secondary Support (minor) for example to illustrate Transitional Words To Signal Levels of Importance ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  6. Following Directions • All details become of equal importance. • Read step by step, word by word and phrase by phrase. • Consult any diagram with the directions. • Read aloud if necessary. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  7. Patterns of Organization Simple Listing: randomly listing items in a series. The items are of equal value Signal words: • also • another • several • for example • in addition ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  8. Patterns of Organization Classification: dividing items into groups or categories Signal words: • groups • categories • four elements • five classes • parts • two divisions ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  9. Patterns of Organization Definitions with Examples: initially defining a concept and expanding with examples and restatements Signal words: • for example • in this case • to illustrate • can be defined Mark your text by circling or underlining the terms. Or take notes or make flashcards. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  10. Patterns of Organization Description: listing characteristics or details • Look for a list of defining details. • Mark your text and underline key words. • Signal words: • is • like • could be described ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  11. first second finally after before next later now at last until when (dates) Patterns of Organization Time Order, Sequence, or Narration: listing events in order of occurrence Signal words: Mark your text! Take notes! ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  12. Patterns of Organization Comparison: listing similarities among items Signal words: • in a similar way • similar • parallels • likewise • in a like manner ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  13. Patterns of Organization Contrast: listing differences among items Signal words: • on the other hand • bigger than • but • however • on the contrary • although • nevertheless ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  14. on that account thus made therefore because for this reason consequently hence Patterns of Organization: Cause and Effect: Showing one element as producing or causing a result or effect Signal words: ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  15. Patterns of Organization Addition: providing additional Information Signal words: • further, furthermore • moreover • besides • likewise • again • also ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  16. beside around to the right/left opposite to without within next to near below above close by within adjacent Patterns of Organization Location/Spatial Order: identifying the whereabouts of objects Signal words: ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  17. Patterns of Organization Summary: condensing major points Signal words: • in conclusion • briefly • to sum up • in short • in a nutshell ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  18. Summary Points • What is a detail? • How do you distinguish between major and minor details? • What is a simple listing pattern? • What is a classification pattern? ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  19. Summary Points • What is a definition with examples pattern? • What is a chronological or sequence pattern? • What is a comparison or contrast pattern? • What is a cause-and-effect pattern? ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  20. Textbook Excerpts • Reading from Psychology • Reading from Criminal Justice • Reading from History ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  21. Reading and Studying Criminal Justice • Identify criminal acts in legal terms and make lists to remember them. • Distinguish between types of crimes and criminals, making charts to distinguish them. • Make timelines for legal processes. • Make flowcharts for court processes. • Relate legal decisions and actions to democratic freedoms. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  22. Selecting Magazines • Read the lead article headlines and table of contents. • Flip through the magazine and read article titles and boxed article excerpts. • Read several “Letters to the Editor.” • Decide, purchase, and enjoy! ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  23. Newsmagazines • News Stories • Feature Stories • Editorials • Essays • Critiques and Reviews ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  24. Reading Casebook What is Beauty? • Letters of Opinion • Essay • Business Excerpt ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

  25. Visit the Companion Website http://www.ablongman.com/smith ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers