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Chapter 5: Supporting Details and Organizational Patterns. Breaking Through: College Reading , 8/e by Brenda Smith. What is a Detail?. Details develop, explain, and prove the main idea. Details are facts, descriptions, and reasons that make the material interesting.

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breaking through college reading 8 e by brenda smith

Chapter 5:

Supporting Details and

Organizational Patterns

Breaking Through: College Reading, 8/e by Brenda Smith

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

what is a detail
What is a Detail?
  • Details develop, explain, and prove the main idea.
  • Details are facts, descriptions, and reasons that make the material interesting.
  • Details answer questions and paint visual images.

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

levels of importance
Levels of Importance
  • Usually the general topic is stated first, followed by subcategories of details, which may be further subdivided into specific examples.
  • An outline or diagram can help you see this.
  • Example:
    • Types of Trees
      • Conifers
        • Pine
        • Spruce

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

distinguishing major and minor details
Distinguishing Major and Minor Details

Ask yourself:

  • What details are needed to explain or prove the main idea? [major]
  • What details are included just to make the passage more interesting? [minor]

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

transitional words to signal levels of importance
Primary Support

(major)

first

second

last

in addition

Secondary Support

(minor)

for example

to illustrate

Transitional Words To Signal Levels of Importance

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

following directions
Following Directions
  • All details become of equal importance.
  • Read step by step, word by word and phrase by phrase.
  • Consult any diagram with the directions.
  • Read aloud if necessary.

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization
Patterns of Organization

Simple Listing: randomly listing

items in a series. The items are of equal value

Signal words:

  • also
  • another
  • several
  • for example
  • in addition

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization8
Patterns of Organization

Classification: dividing items into

groups or categories

Signal words:

  • groups
  • categories
  • four elements
  • five classes
  • parts
  • two divisions

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization9
Patterns of Organization

Definitions with Examples: initially defining a concept and expanding with examples and restatements

Signal words:

  • for example
  • in this case
  • to illustrate
  • can be defined

Mark your text by circling or underlining the terms. Or take notes or make flashcards.

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization10
Patterns of Organization

Description: listing characteristics or details

  • Look for a list of defining details.
  • Mark your text and underline key words.
  • Signal words:
    • is
    • like
    • could be described

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization11
first

second

finally

after

before

next

later

now

at last

until

when

(dates)

Patterns of Organization

Time Order, Sequence, or Narration:

listing events in order of occurrence

Signal words:

Mark your text!

Take notes!

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization12
Patterns of Organization

Comparison: listing similarities

among items

Signal words:

  • in a similar way
  • similar
  • parallels
  • likewise
  • in a like manner

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization13
Patterns of Organization

Contrast: listing differences

among items

Signal words:

  • on the other hand
  • bigger than
  • but
  • however
  • on the contrary
  • although
  • nevertheless

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization14
on that account

thus

made

therefore

because

for this reason

consequently

hence

Patterns of Organization:

Cause and Effect: Showing one element as

producing or causing a result or effect

Signal words:

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization15
Patterns of Organization

Addition: providing additional

Information

Signal words:

  • further, furthermore
  • moreover
  • besides
  • likewise
  • again
  • also

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization16
beside

around

to the right/left

opposite

to

without

within

next to

near

below

above

close by

within

adjacent

Patterns of Organization

Location/Spatial Order:

identifying the whereabouts of objects

Signal words:

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

patterns of organization17
Patterns of Organization

Summary: condensing major points

Signal words:

  • in conclusion
  • briefly
  • to sum up
  • in short
  • in a nutshell

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

summary points
Summary Points
  • What is a detail?
  • How do you distinguish between major and minor details?
  • What is a simple listing pattern?
  • What is a classification pattern?

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

summary points19
Summary Points
  • What is a definition with examples pattern?
  • What is a chronological or sequence pattern?
  • What is a comparison or contrast pattern?
  • What is a cause-and-effect pattern?

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

textbook excerpts
Textbook Excerpts
  • Reading from Psychology
  • Reading from Criminal Justice
  • Reading from History

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

reading and studying criminal justice
Reading and Studying Criminal Justice
  • Identify criminal acts in legal terms and make lists to remember them.
  • Distinguish between types of crimes and criminals, making charts to distinguish them.
  • Make timelines for legal processes.
  • Make flowcharts for court processes.
  • Relate legal decisions and actions to democratic freedoms.

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

selecting magazines
Selecting Magazines
  • Read the lead article headlines and table of contents.
  • Flip through the magazine and read article titles and boxed article excerpts.
  • Read several “Letters to the Editor.”
  • Decide, purchase, and enjoy!

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

newsmagazines
Newsmagazines
  • News Stories
  • Feature Stories
  • Editorials
  • Essays
  • Critiques and Reviews

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

reading casebook
Reading Casebook

What is Beauty?

  • Letters of Opinion
  • Essay
  • Business Excerpt

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers

visit the companion website
Visit the Companion Website

http://www.ablongman.com/smith

©2007 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers