The Reading Block: Instruction and Environment (Take 2)Marcia L. Kosanovich, Ph.D.Director of Curriculum & Instructional ProjectsThe Florida Center for Reading Researchwww.fcrr.orgReading First PrincipalsMiami, September 21, 2006
“We can, whenever and wherever we choose, successfully teach all children to read. We already have reams of research, hundreds of successful programs, and thousands of effective schools to show us the way. Whether or not we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven’t so far” (McEwan, 1998).
Characteristics of the Reading Block • High Quality Instruction • Minimum of 90 minutes of uninterrupted instruction • Whole Group Instruction • Small Group Instruction and Practice • Teacher-Led Instruction • Flexible • Differentiated • homogeneous • Independent Student Centers • Differentiated
“When Stars Read” Struggling readers share their experiences of becoming independent readers with the people who can help them the most…us— Principals and Teachers!
Skilled Readers • Identify words accurately and fluently • Understand the meaning of words • Develop meaningful ideas from groups of words • Draw inferences • Relate what he or she already knows to the text being read
Potential Stumbling Blocks • Difficulty learning to read words accurately and fluently • Poor vocabulary and knowledge of comprehension strategies • Absence or loss of the motivation to read
Answers to Questions • What reading components constitute the reading block? • How are the reading components taught? • How is the reading block organized? • What does differentiated instruction look like? • How is the reading block managed? • How can I access high quality resources?
What reading components constitute the reading block? “The Fab Five” • Phonemic Awareness • Phonics • Fluency • Vocabulary • Comprehension
What is Phonological Awareness? Most commonly defined as one’s sensitivity to, or explicit awareness of, the phonological structure of words in one’s language (Torgesen, 1998).
Phonological Awareness • The ability to examine language independent of meaning • To think about the linguistic characteristics of a word rather than focusing on the meaning of a word
Phonological Awareness • A broad term that includes both understanding about sounds and abilities related to sounds. • About sounds-not about letters. A student can be phonemically aware and not know any letters or even that letters are used to represent sounds.
Phonological Awareness • Phonological awareness & phonemic awareness are often used interchangeably. • Phonological awareness is a more general term than phonemic awareness.
Phonological Awareness Words Syllables Phonemes (phonemic awareness)
Phonological Awareness • At the most basic level, phonological awareness involves the ability to identify the individual words within spoken sentences. • Next, children become aware of the syllable structure of words like “base-ball” or “fan-tas-tic”. • Then children begin to become aware of the individualsounds within syllables, starting first with awareness of the onset-rime structure of all syllables (i.e., c-at, m-an), and ending with awareness of the individual phonemes in words (i.e., c-a-t, m-a-n).
Levels of Phonological Awareness Phonological Awareness Phonemic Awareness Phoneme Blending & Segmenting Onset-Rime Blending & Segmenting Syllable Blending & Segmenting Rhyming & Alliteration Sentence Segmenting
Phonemic Awareness • Activity • Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words (Torgesen, 1998). • When phonemes are combined, they form syllables and words.
Phonemic Awareness By changing one phoneme, we can change the meaning of a word: big dig bog bin
Why so Critical? • Enables students to use letter sound correspondences (phonics) to read and spell words • Without PA, a child is unlikely to benefit from phonics instruction • Poor readers who enter first grade w/ weak PA are most likely to be the poor readers in fourth grade
Growth in word reading ability of children who begin first grade in the bottom 20% in Phoneme Awareness (Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, et al., 1997) Reading grade level 1 2 3 4 5 Grade level corresponding to age
Growth in phonetic reading ability of children who begin first grade in the bottom 20% in Phoneme Awareness (Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, et al., 1997) Reading Grade Level Grade level corresponding to age
Growth in reading comprehension of children who begin first grade in the bottom 20% in Phoneme Awareness (Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, et al., 1997) Reading Grade Level Grade level corresponding to age
Why Teach PA? The reading growth of all children may be accelerated by effective instruction in phonological awareness, and at least 20-30% of children may remain poor readers without it.
Phonological Humor in School “My son is under the doctor’s care and should not take fizical ed. Please execute him.” “Please excuse Ray Friday from school. He has very loose vowels.” “Please excuse Dianne from being absent yesterday. She was in bed with gramps.”
The Reading Block:Phonemic Awareness Instruction GUIDING PRINCIPLE • Systematically deliver explicit instruction HOW • Establish instructional routines in blending, segmenting, and manipulating sound. • Scaffold introduction of new phonemic skills from simple to more complex • Provide ample practice opportunities that directly align with the phonemic awareness instruction • Link phonemic awareness instruction to phonics
The Reading Block:Phonemic Awareness Instruction Elkonin Box
Word Type: Example: VC am CVC-continuous mat CVCC-continuous mist CVC-stop cat CVCC-stop cats CCVC-continuous/blend snap, frog, slip CCVC-stop/blend club, grab
Overview of DIBELS MeasureLetter Naming Fluency (LNF) • Intended for students in kindergarten through the fall of first grade • Provides a measure of a student’s proficiency in naming upper and lower case letters • Primarily an indicator of risk • Students identified at risk should be instructed in phonological awareness and alphabetic principle
Overview of DIBELS MeasureInitial Sounds Fluency (ISF) • This measure assesses a student’s ability to recognize and produce the beginning sound(s) in an orally presented word • Students performing below expectations in this measure will benefit from instruction in phonological awareness
Overview of DIBELS MeasurePhoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) • Measures a student’s ability to segment three- and four-phoneme words into their individual phonemes • The student must produce verbally the individual sounds in words that are presented by the examiner • It is administered in kindergarten and first grades • It is a good predictor of later reading achievement • Strengthened by phonological awareness activities
Becoming sensitive to phonemes is only part of the challenge when learning to read…
Phonics An understanding of the alphabetic principle—the relationship between phonemes and graphemes.
The Connection Between Phonemic Awareness and Phonics • English is an alphabetic language. Words are represented in print roughly at the phoneme level. • Children need to be aware that words have sound segments that can be represented by individual letters • Without at least emergent levels of phonemic awareness, the rationale for learning individual letter sounds and “sounding out” words is not understandable
The Connection Between Phonemic Awareness and Phonics • If a child can “hear” four sounds in the word clap, it helps them to notice the way the letters correspond to the sounds. • The ability to notice the correspondence between the sounds in a word and the way it is spelled reinforces children’s learning of letter-sound correspondences. • Letters represent phonemes. PA is a pre-curser to phonics instruction.
The Connection Between Phonemic Awareness and Phonics • In order to understand the way print represents words, students must understand that words are made up of phonemes. • Many students acquire phonemic awareness from only a small amount of exposure to letters and word games. However, many other students require careful and explicit instruction in order to become aware of individual phonemes in words.
Phonics Instruction • Systematic • pre-specified sequence of letter–sound correspondences taught in a logical order (e.g., high utility sounds taught first; progresses from simple to more complex; once a few letter sounds are learned, students are taught a decoding strategy; students apply recently learned phonics to reading connected text) • Explicit • taught directly (teacher modeling, providing guided practice, and independent practice)
The Reading Block:Phonics Instruction GUIDING PRINCIPLE • Systematically deliver explicit instruction HOW • Carefully scaffold introduction of new phonics skills from simple to more complex letter-sound correspondences • Provide ample practice opportunities that directly align with the phonics instruction • Link phonics instruction to word recognition and spelling activities • Explicitly address patterns in irregular words and provide ample practice to build sight word recognition of irregular words • Relate phonetic elements to all types of text • Establish instructional routines for development of phonetic decoding efficiency • By third grade, continue instruction in complex sound-symbol relationships and morphemes from words that appear in academic texts at third grade text and the intermediate grades
Is Phonological Awareness the same thing as Phonics? NO! Phonological Awareness is an oral language skill-- Phonics always involves the use of letters and letter-sound relationships.
Overview of DIBELS MeasureNonsense Word Fluency (NWF) • It taps the student’s knowledge of letter-sound correspondence and ability to blend letters into words (test of the alphabetic principle) • This measure is provided in kindergarten, first and second grades • Students performing below expectations will benefit from activities focusing on decoding
Skilled Readers • Read a word letter by letter • Process words automatically and rapidly • Look for known word parts in unfamiliar words • Use context to confirm pronunciation and meaning