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THE CRUSADES. A Quest for the Holy Land. Crusades. A long series or Wars between Christians and Muslims They fought over control of Jerusalem which was called the Holy Land because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached and died. Causes of the Crusades. The Call to Arms.

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the crusades


A Quest for the Holy Land

  • A long series or Wars between Christians and Muslims
  • They fought over control of Jerusalem which was called the Holy Land because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached and died
the call to arms
The Call to Arms
  • Pope Urban II called for the defeat of the Turks, returning the Holy Land to the Christians
mobilization of the crusades
Mobilization of the Crusades
  • Pope Urban traveled to various cities for nine months preaching the Crusade and offering extraordinary inducements to include a plenary indulgence remitting all punishments due to sin for those who died on the Crusade
  • Serfs were allowed to leave the land to which they were bound
  • Citizens were exempted from taxes
  • Debtors were given a moratorium on interest
  • Prisoners were freed and death sentences were commuted by a bold extension of Papal authority to life service in Palestine
who answered the call
Who Answered the Call?
  • Feudal Lords
  • Knights
  • Peasants
the first crusade 1096 1099
The First Crusade (1096-1099)
  • Peasant army
    • Untrained
    • Lacked military equipment
    • Many killed by Muslim Turks
  • Knights
    • Succeeded in capturing Jerusalem
second crusade 1147 1149
Second Crusade (1147-1149)
  • After victory many Christians went back home.
  • The Turks eventually took back much of the territory.
  • King of France and Emperor of Germany sent troops to stop the Turks.
second crusade 1147 11491
Second Crusade (1147-1149)
  • Saladin leads the Muslim Turks to victory, defeating the Christians
  • * He was considered a very wise ruler. He was known for his sometimes kind treatment of fallen enemies. Many Christians saw him as a model of knightly chivalry.
third crusade 1189 1192
Third Crusade (1189-1192)
  • King Richard of England convinces the Turks to allow Christians to visit the Holy Land
richard and saladin
Richard and Saladin
  • Richard and Saladin embarked on a “unique campaign in which blows and battles alternated with compliments and courtesies”
  • (Durant, 599)
  • The two executed enemy prisoners they held
  • Richard proposed his sister marry Saladin’s brother
  • They signed peace treaties then rejected them
  • Richard conferred knighthood on the son of a Muslim ambassador
  • Richard got sick and Saladin sent him his own physician and some fruit
  • Saladin saw Richard unmounted in battle and sent him a horse
crusades continue through 1200 s
Crusades Continue Through 1200’s
  • Several more crusades attempted with no victories for the Christians
  • Children’s crusade, - 30,000 soldiers - many of them under 12 years old – Never made it to the Holy Land
results of the crusades
Results of the Crusades
  • I.F. Turks Traveled they would Trade
  • I = Improvements – Ships, Maps, Explorers
  • F =Feudalism declines because Feudal lords die or spend too much money on military.
  • T = Turks still rule the Holy Land
  • T =Travel – Europeans want to travel more
  • T =Trade – Europeans want product from the East such as sugar, cotton, silk, spices, etc.
results of the crusades1
Results of the Crusades
  • Jerusalem was in Muslim hands
  • Christian pilgrims became fewer and more fearful than ever
  • The Muslim powers, once tolerant of religious diversity, had been made intolerant by attack
  • The effort of the popes to bring peace and unity to Europe had been thwarted by nationalistic ambitions, avarice, and internal dissension
  • The influence of the Catholic Church and the position of the pope declined and the schism between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church widened
results of the crusades2
Results of the Crusades
  • Muslim civilization had been victorious over Christian civilization
  • Indigenous eastern Christians were caught in the middle between Crusaders and Muslims, and many who were outraged by the excesses of the Crusaders or who wanted to avoid persecution by Muslim leaders who saw them as collaborators with the Crusaders converted to Islam
    • In fact, the Crusades ironically proved instrumental in making the eastern Mediterranean predominantly Muslim
results of the crusades3
Results of the Crusades
  • Serfs had used the Crusades to leave their lands and many found new opportunities
  • The Turkish capture of Constantinople was delayed until 1453
  • The Muslims, even though victorious, had themselves been weakened, and fell more easily when the Mongols attacked
  • Trade and exploration were enhanced
  • Italian traders obviously benefited from supplying the Crusades while they were going on, but they also saw an opportunity to expand their market by establishing direct trade with the Muslim world
  • The lucrative trade provided great profit to the Italian city-states and ultimately provided the economic basis for the Italian Renaissance we’ll discuss in Lesson 24

Lorenzo de Medici was part of a family that ruled Florence and served as bankers for the Crusades and patrons of the Renaissance

  • The most important trade item were spices
    • Other items included cotton, linen, dates, coral, pearls, porcelain, silk, and metal goods
  • Damascus was a key center for industry and commerce and a stopping point for pilgrims on their way to Mecca

Egyptian scarf or garment fragment ca 1395

  • European Christians also became exposed to new ideas as they traveled throughout the Mediterranean basin
    • The works of Aristotle
    • Islamic science and astronomy
    • “Arabic” numerals which the Muslims had borrowed from India
    • Techniques for paper production which the Muslims had learned from China
  • While the Crusades may have largely failed as military adventures, they helped encourage the reintegration of western Europe into the larger economy of the western hemisphere
the reconquista of spain
The Reconquista of Spain
  • The Christians did have better success wresting Sicily and Spain from the Muslims in actions separate from the Crusades
  • Sicily was regained relatively easily
    • Muslims had conquered it in the 9th Century but in the 1090, after about 20 years of fighting, Norman warriors returned it to Christian hands
  • Spain would be a bit more of a challenge
the reconquista of spain1
The Reconquista of Spain
  • Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th Century and ruled all but small Christian states such as Catalonia
  • In the 1060s Christians began attacking outward from these toeholds
immediate impact of the reconquista
Immediate Impact of the Reconquista
  • After the successful Reconquista, the devoutly Christian rulers of Spain and Portugal were eager to dominate the Islamic states in North Africa and to convert non-Christians
  • The desire to spread Christianity would be one of the motives for the European explorations

1492 was the year of both the completion of the Reconquista and Columbus’ voyage to the New World

the reconquista of spain2
The Reconquista of Spain
  • By 1150 Christians had recaptured Lisbon and controlled over half the peninsula
  • These successes lured reinforcements from England and France and a new round of campaigning in the 13th Century brought all but Granada into Christian hands
  • In 1492, Christian forces conquered Granada and the Reconquista was complete
assignment recruitment poster
Assignment: Recruitment Poster
  • Use your notes and the textbook pages to create either a recruitment poster or a crusades board game. Your project should include:
  • A definition of the crusades.
  • A map of the crusades.
  • The four causes of the crusades.
  • Pope Urban’s call for defeat of the Turks to return the. holy land top the Christians.
  • Who answered or needs to answer the call.
  • A description of all four crusades.
  • The results of the crusades.