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THE CRUSADES PowerPoint Presentation
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  1. THE CRUSADES Clash of civilizations or intermittent warfare between divided Christian and divided Muslim empires?

  2. I. Political background A. Muslim conquest of Byzantine Palestine, 638 B. Christian pilgrimage to Jerusalem continues.

  3. C. Christians under Muslim rule are governed by the Pact of Umar (supposedly the peace treaty between Christians of Jerusalem and Umar, the 2nd Muslim caliph, who conquered Jerusalem): Monotheistic non-Muslims live under Muslim ruler’s protection in exchange for head tax and certain restrictions in public behavior. Dome of the Rock (built 685 C.E. Church of the Holy Sepulchre (4th c.) under Umayyads) Jerusalem

  4. D. Division within Christianity: The GREAT SCHISM, 1054: Roman Catholic vs. Greek Orthodox (western Europe) (Byzantine Empire)

  5. E. Division within Islam: Fatimid Shicite counter-caliphate takes N. Africa, Mecca/Medina, Egypt, Greater Syria (including JERUSALEM) from Abbasids, 10th c. Constantinople BYZANTINES ABBASIDS Baghdad Jerusalem Cairo FATIMIDS

  6. F. Fatimids are generally tolerant of non-Muslims; Christian pilgrimage to Jerusalem continues. Fatimid coins Fatimid mosque (1125), Cairo

  7. G. Seljuk Turks take Baghdad 1055, recognize Abbasid caliph. Baghdad Cairo

  8. H. Seljuk victory over Byzantines at Manzikert, 1071→ Seljuks enter (Byz.) Anatolia and (Fatimid) Syria, capture Jerusalem from Fatimids and prohibit Christian pilgrimage. I. Seljuk prohibition of pilgrimage triggers FIRST CRUSADE (1096-99) against “Saracens”. J. Crusades provide an outlet for young men in western European kingdoms who are unable to inherit landed estates (younger sons, etc). K. By the time Crusaders reach Jerusalem, Fatimids have retaken it (oops). Manzikert

  9. L. Crusaders encounter “Assassins”: Fatimid offshoot cell in Syria led by “Old Man of the Mountain;” members assassinate Seljuk officials and Crusader leaders. European image of Old Man of Mountain instructing hashish-crazed followers the Aga Khan, billionaire philanthropist and current leader of this sect

  10. II. The Eight Crusades: 1st: 1096-99 vs. Seljuks/Fatimids 2nd: 1147-49 after Seljuks’ autonomous governor of N. Syria and Iraq captures Crusader state of Edessa. EDESSA Jerusalem FATIMIDS

  11. 3rd: 1189-92 after Saladin (Salah al-Din), client of Seljuks’ autonomous gov. of N. Syria and Iraq, retakes Jerusalem. Saladin serves Fatimids as general→displaces them in Egypt/ Syria/Mecca and Medina, and founds own dynasty (the AYYUBIDs), 1171. Jerusalem Cairo

  12. 3rd Crusade pits Saladin against Richard the Lionhearted of England Saladin Richard Saladin’s tomb, Damascus

  13. Crusader-era architecture: ←Crac des Chevaliers, Syria citadel of Aleppo, Syria (built by Saladin) citadel of Cairo (built by Saladin)

  14. 4th: 1204 – Crusaders occupy Constantinople (ruled by “Latins,” 1204-61) Byzantine court flees to Nicaea (Iznik). Constantinople Nicaea

  15. 5th-7th involve Ayyubid dynasty (founded by Saladin). 5th: 1218-21 – Former Crusader king of Jerusalem takes Damietta in Egypt from the Ayyubids but is ultimately forced to give it back. 6th: 1228-29 – Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II intervenes in Ayyubid dynastic struggle, is given Jerusalem. 7th: 1248-54 – King Louis IX of France (St. Louis) intervenes in Ayyubid dynastic struggle, takes Damietta in Egypt. Constantinople Acre Damietta Jerusalem

  16. Ayyubids ultimately regain Damietta and Jerusalem but are greatly weakened. Ayyubids’ Turkish MAMLUKS take over their empire, found MAMLUK SULTANATE (1250-1517). Damietta

  17. 8th: 1270: King Louis IX of France besieges Tunis but dies of plague. Constantinople Tunis Jerusalem

  18. 1291 – Mamluks evict last Crusaders from Acre (N. Palestine). Gothic doorway from Acre on Mamluk theological academy, Cairo

  19. III. Muslim historians regarded the Christian reconquest of • Spain (late 11th c.-1492) as part of the Crusades. • completed when Ferdinand and Isabella take Granada, 1492 • had a much greater impact than Crusades in the east GRANADA

  20. Ferdinand & Isabella question Columbus ← the Alhambra, Granada ↓

  21. IV. Limited cultural contact A. Crusaders were relatively isolated from surrounding Muslim population, even imported their own wives. B. Crusaders adopted soap, spices, music (drums), clothing. soap pepper

  22. C. Dante’s (1265-1310) Inferno may have drawn on medieval Muslim work on hell. Dante (l.) and Virgil enter hell in painting by Delacroix. Botticelli’s drawing of Dante’s hell


  24. It’s Theodora!