The Crusades • 1054 – the “Great Schism” occurred – Roman Catholic Church (Rome) and Eastern Orthodox Church (Constantinople) split • “Crusades” were military expeditions sent by the pope to reclaim the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks
1st crusade Time period • Called for by Pope Urban II in 1095 • 1096 – 1099
1st crusade leaders • Peter the Hermit – led a peasant army to the Middle East (Peasant’s Crusade) • A later expedition of knights reached the holy land & succeeded
1st crusade goal • To reclaim the holy land from the Muslim Turks
1st crusade results • SUCCESS for the Christians • Crusading Order created Templars
1st Crusade • Templars • Hospitallers • *Crusader States Edessa, Antioch, Jerusalem, Tripoli
2nd crusade Time period • 1147-1149 • 1144 – Edessa fell to Muslims
2nd crusade leaders • St. Bernard preached a crusade & influenced Conrad III (emperor of HRE) & Louis VII (king of France) to go on Crusade.
2nd crusade GOAL • To take back Edessa (Christian kingdom in Syria)
2nd crusade Results • FAILURE!! • Conrad III defeated • Louis VII laid siege to Damascus • Guy of Lusignan – King of Jerusalem, Kidnapped Saladin’s sister = war • Horns of Hattin (1187) – Jerusalem army destroyed -> fall of Jerusalem.
2nd crusade Results • FAILURE!! • 1170 – Saladin became ruler of Egypt & Syria (all areas that surrounded the Crusader states) • 1187 Fall of Jerusalem
3rd crusade Time period • 1187 – fall of Jerusalem to Saladin
3rd crusade leaders • Philip Augustus (King of France) & Richard the Lion-Hearted (King of England) • Frederick Barbarossa – HRE – Drowned on the way
3rd crusade goal • To reclaim Jerusalem from Saladin
3rd crusade results • Fought for 3 years but neither side could win so the Holy Land remained in the hands of Muslims & Christians were allowed to travel freely
Other crusades • There were actually FOUR more crusades • But NONE succeeded!!! • Children’s Crusade 1212 • Goal – Spain completed • in 1492
crusades Long term results • Holy Land remained in the hands of Muslims • Power of feudal lords down • Europeans’ desire to travel up • Europeans learned better shipping techniques
inquisition • The court created by the Church to try to find & deal with heretics (deniers of basic church doctrines) • A regular procedure was developed • In their minds, using force and torture to save souls from damnation was the right thing to do.