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The Crusades

The Crusades

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The Crusades

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  1. The Crusades

  2. Crusades • 11th & 13th centuries, European Christians carried out a series of military expeditions to take back the holy land from the Muslims • Seljuk Turks won the battle of Manzikert & threatened Constantinople • Crusades began when Pope Urban II responded to the request of Alexius I to liberate Jerusalem & Palestine • Urban II called for crusades @ infidels • Infidels were the non believers = Muslims, Jews

  3. Alexius I Asked For Help and Urban II Called For the First Crusade

  4. First Crusades • Mostly French knights = captured Antioch in 1098 & Jerusalem in 1099 • Massacred Muslim & Jewish inhabitants • 4 Latin Crusader states were established that lasted 100 years • 1120’s, Muslims began to strike back which led to another Crusade

  5. 2nd Crusade • The fall of a Latin Kingdom led to the call of another crusade • Saint Bernard of Clairvaux called for the crusade & got the support of King Louis VII of France & Conrad III of Germany • 2nd Crusade was a total failure • 1187, Jerusalem fell to Saladin • 3 important rulers then agreed to begin a third Crusade

  6. Louis VII and Conrad III Respond To Bernard of Clairvaux’s Call For a Second Crusade

  7. Saladin’s Capture of Jerusalem Sparked the Third Crusade

  8. 3rd Crusade • Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted) of England, Phillip II of Augustus of France • Members of the 3rd arrived in the East by 1189 & encountered problems • Barbarossa drowned while swimming in a river • English & French had success with their naval fleets against coastal cities, but failed as they moved inland • Richard I negotiated a settlement with Saladin to allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem

  9. Philip II, Frederick I And Richard I Responded

  10. 4th Crusade • 6 years after the death of Saladin in 1193, Pope Innocent III initiated the 4th crusade • On their way to the East became involved a conflict with the Byzantine Empire over the succession to the Byzantine throne • Crusaders diverted to Constantinople & sacked the city in 1204/ Byzantine empire was reestablished in 1261 but was never as powerful • Ottoman Turks eventually conquered Byzantine 190 years later

  11. Osman: Founder Of the Ottoman Turks Sultan Mahmet II: Conqueror of Constantinople

  12. Results of the Crusades • Increased wealth of Italian city-states like Genoa and Venice. • Began Jewish persecution and genocide. • Started the breakdown of feudalism and an increase in the power of kings. • Improved technology such as better ships and maps, and skills in siege techniques and weapons.

  13. Crusading Kitty