Problems with the Church in the 1100s These guys tried to solve the problems. (Pope Leo and Pope Gregory) • 1. Priests had begun to marry against church law • 2. Bishops sold positions in the church (simony) • 3. Through lay investiture, nations competed over church influence.
Restoring Faith: The Dominicans and Franciscans established orders with the purpose of increasing the faith of all Christians through good works.
Crusade: Pope Urban II calls for a “Holy War” • Goals: • Ideally: 1. To protect Christian pilgrims 2. Take back the Holy Land from Muslims. • In Reality: 3. To gain in political power 4. To grow rich economically 5. To assert Europe as a global power.
The First Crusade: Disorganized but was able to capture Jerusalem. Four “Crusader” Kingdoms were established.
The Second Crusade: Organized to recapture the city of Edessa but went home in defeat after Saladin led Muslims and recaptured Jerusalem.
The Third Crusade: Led to recapture Jerusalem and included King Philip of France, Frederick of Germany, and Richard of England. It ended in truce.
The Crusades in Europe: Reconquista and Inquisition in Spain. The goal is to convert all of Spain to Christianity and drive out the Muslims.
Effects of the Crusades: Constant Holy War and the Emergence of Europe • Increased role of women and serfs. • Increased trade between Europe and Asia (New products, ideas, and beliefs) • The failure of the crusades weakened the power of the pope and kings. • Legacy of bitterness and hatred between Christians and Muslims. • Europe as the new global power.