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Lim Sei Kee @ cK. HND – 4. Motivation. Introduction. Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation . Individuals differ in their basic motivational drive . The level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times.

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HND – 4. Motivation

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  • Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation.
  • Individuals differ in their basic motivational drive.
  • The level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times.
  • The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal.
  • Three key elements:
    • Intensity – how hard a person tries
    • Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals
    • Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort
early theories of motivation
Early Theories of Motivation

These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers.

  • Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  • Theory X and Theory Y
  • Two-Factor Theory
  • ERG Theory
  • McClelland’s Theory of Needs
  • Goal Setting Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
hierarchy of needs theory abraham maslow
Hierarchy of Needs Theory – Abraham Maslow
  • Physiological: the need for food, sleep, water, air, and sex [survival]
  • Security: the need for safety, family, stability, and economic security [physical and emotional safety]
  • Social or affiliation: the need to belong, to interact with others, to have friends, and to love and be loved [love and affection and a sense of belonging]

Esteem: the need for respect and recognition of others [respect, recognition, and a sense of our own accomplishment and worth]

  • Self-actualization: the need to realize one’s potential, to grow, to be creative, and to accomplish [to grow and develop and become all that we are capable of being]
theory x and theory y douglas mcgregor
Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)

Theory X

Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform.

Theory Y

Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.

theory x and theory y
Theory X and Theory Y
  • Theory X, 4 assumptions held by managers:
  • Employees inherently dislike work, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it
  • Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals
  • Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible
  • Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition

Theory Y, 4 assumptions held by managers:

- Employees can view work as being as natural

as rest or play

  • People will exercise self-direction & self control if they are committed to the objectives
  • The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility
  • The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population

Two-Factor Theory – Frederick Herzberg

  • Motivator Factors: Pertained to the content of the job; e.g. career advancement, recognition, achievement, sense of responsibility
  • Hygiene Factors: Stemmed from the context in which the job was performed, e.g. job security, company policies, interpersonal relations, working conditions, salary – when these factors adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
erg theory clayton alderfer
ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)

There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.

Core Needs

Existence: provision of basic material requirements.

Relatedness: desire for relationships.

Growth: desire for personal development.


More than one need can be operative at the same time.

If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases.

alderfer s erg theory
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  • Three groups of core needs:
    • Existence (Maslow: physiological and safety)
    • Relatedness (Maslow: social and status)
    • Growth (Maslow: esteem and self-actualization)
  • Removed the hierarchical assumption
    • Can be motivated by all three at once

McClelland’s Theory of Needs

  • Need for Achievement: The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
  • Need for Affiliation: The desire to friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
  • Need for Power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved

Acquired needs theory.

    • Need for achievement (nAch).
      • The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.
    • Need for affiliation (nAff).
      • The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others.
    • Need for power (nPower).
      • The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others.
locke s goal setting theory
Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory
    • Goal Setting Theory
  • The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance

Difficult Goals:

    • Focus and direct attention
    • Energize the person to work harder
    • Difficulty increases persistence
    • Force people to be more effective and efficient

Goal Setting Theory

  • Function of Goals
    • basis of motivation
    • direct behavior
      • For goals to be effective
        • individuals must be aware of goals
        • must accept the goals
      • Factors that influence effectiveness of goal setting
        • goals must be specific
        • goals should be difficult but attainable

Guidelines for SMART Goals




Results oriented

Time bound

Give feedback regularly!

expectancy theory victor vroom
Expectancy Theory – Victor Vroom
  • Motivation depends on how much we want something and on how likely we think we are to get it
  • Implications are that managers must recognize that
    • Employees work for a variety of reasons
    • The reasons, or expected outcomes, may change over time
    • It is necessary to show employees how they can attain the outcomes they desire

Expectancy Model of Motivation





Perceived effort–





reward probability


value of reward

“If I work hard,

will I get the job


“What rewards

will I get when

the job is well done?”

“What rewards

do I value?”

guidelines for the use of expectancy theory
Guidelines for the Use ofExpectancy Theory
  • Practical use of the theory by managers:
    • Determine the primary outcome each employee wants.
    • Decide what levels and kinds of performance are needed to meet organizational goals.
    • Make sure the desired levels of performance are possible.
    • Link desired outcomes and desired performance.