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Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD

Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD

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Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD

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  1. Understanding the Motivation to Seek or Keep a Job among Adults with SMD Phyllis Panzano, Ph.D., Bev Seffrin, Ph.D., Sheri Chaney, M.A. Decision Support Services, Inc. Funded by the Ohio Department of Mental Health, The Social Security Administration & SAMHSA

  2. GOALS OF THE RESEARCH • To test a widely-studied model of work motivation on a sample of working adults with severe mental disabilities (SMD) • To explore differences in motivation to seek employment among non-working adults with SMD who are involved in vocational programming

  3. Brief History • Job Incentive Focus Project (JIF): Innovative Research Component • JIF Agency Participants: • Eastway MHC, Eastco (Dayton) • Coleman Professional Center (Kent, Canton & Warren) • COVA (Columbus) • The Zepf Center, Network (Toledo)

  4. Brief History • Other participating organizations: • Amethyst • Columbus Area MHC – Pathway Clubhouse • Community Support Services • Concord Counseling • North Central Mental Health Center • Ohio Rehabilitation Services Commission • Southeast MHC • The Vision Center

  5. Understanding the Behavior of Working Adults & Adults Seeking Work Performance/Behavior = f (Ability, Motivation, Opportunity to Perform).

  6. Motivation to Seek Employment Phase I Phase II Motivation to Maintain Employment

  7. Motivation to Maintain Employment • BASED ON JOB CHARACTERISTICS THEORY • Hackman & Oldham (1976) • A Motivational Model based on the Design of Jobs • Original scales from the JDS reworded • New instrument (JPQ) validated • Measures added for tailoring to population of adults w/SMD

  8. Current & Last Versions of the JPQ • “Current Version” of the Job Profile Questionnaire (JPQ): for individuals who are currently working or in a work-like situation (n = 132) • “Last Version” of the JPQ: for individuals who are NOT currently working, but have had recent work experience (i.e., within the past 6 months) (n = 24)

  9. Characteristics of Respondents • Age: 18 – 64, average age = 42 • 59% male / 41% female • Tenure: 1 week - 18 years, average = 2 yrs • 89% Single, Divorced or Separated • 63% Caucasian, 30% African American & 7% Hispanic, American Native or Eskimo, or Other

  10. Job Titles • 34% - Factory/ assembly/trial job • 14% - Cleaning Services • 11% - Manager, Clerical, Office • 7.5% - Food Service Worker • 5% - Sales, Cashier

  11. Hours Worked/Week

  12. Motivation to Maintain Employment How You SEE Your Job How You FEEL About Your Job Actions And Results Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

  13. Research Questions • Does the original model based on job design that explains motivation to maintain employment apply to adults with SMD who are currently working? • What additions to the model were suggested by expert stakeholders? • Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model? • All reported findings are statistically significant (p < .05).

  14. Research Questions • Does the original model based on job design that explains motivation to maintain employment apply to adults with SMD who are currently working? • What additions to the model were suggested by expert stakeholders? • Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model? • All reported findings are statistically significant (p < .05).

  15. Motivation to Maintain Employment How You SEE Your Job How You FEEL About Your Job Actions And Results Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

  16. Variety of Skills Task Identity Significance to Others Autonomy Feedback from the Job How You SEE Your Job Motivation to Maintain Employment

  17. How You See Your Job % Who agree or strongly agree

  18. Meaningfulness Feelings of Responsibility Knowledge of Results How You FEEL About Your Job Motivation to Maintain Employment

  19. How You Feel About Your Job % Who agree or strongly agree

  20. Does “How You See Your Job” Relate to “Feelings about Your Job”? • 36% of Meaningfulness is explained by the combination of: • Variety of Skills • Task Identity • Significance to Others

  21. Does “How You See Your Job” Relate to “Feelings about Your Job”? • 18% of Felt Responsibility is explained by the combination of: • Significance to Others and • Feedback from Job • 20% of Knowledge of Results is explained by the combination of: • Significance to Others and • Feedback from Job

  22. Does “How You See Your Job” Relate to “Feelings about Your Job”? • Yes! • Perceived job features related to Meaningfulness, Feelings of Responsibility and Knowledge of Results in a pattern that is almost identical to the predictions of the model. • Significance of Work to Others emerged as an important variable. (Only 29% agree/ strongly agree that their work is significant to others.)

  23. Motivation to Maintain Employment How You SEE Your Job How You FEEL About Your Job Actions And Results Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

  24. General Satisfaction Perceived Job Performance Internal Work Motivation Satisfaction with Growth Thoughts of Quitting Actions and Results Motivation to Maintain Employment

  25. Actions and Results % Who agree or strongly agree

  26. Do “Feelings About the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”? • 41% of General Satisfaction is explained by: • Meaningfulness

  27. Do “Feelings About the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”? • 30% of Perceived Job Performance is explained by the combination of: • Meaningfulness • Feeling Responsible • Knowledge of Results

  28. Do “Feelings About the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”? • 33% of Satisfaction with Growth is explained by • Meaningfulness and Knowledge of Results • 29% of Internal Work Motivation is explained by • Felt Responsibility and Knowledge of Results • 20% of Thoughts of Quitting is explained by • Meaningfulness (negative relationship).

  29. Do “Feelings about the Job” Relate to “Actions and Results”? • Yes! • Meaningfulness, Feelings of Responsibility and Knowledge of Results DO relate to outcomes. • The patterns of relationships are logical. • Meaningfulness emerges as an important feeling about the job. (48% of respondents agree/strongly agree that their jobs are meaningful.)

  30. Motivation to Maintain Employment How You SEE Your Job How You FEEL About Your Job Actions And Results Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

  31. Need for Growth is expected to strengthen the links between the other boxes Deal Makers and Deal Breakers Motivation to Maintain Employment

  32. Deal Makers and Breakers % Important or Very Important

  33. Motivation to Maintain Employment How You SEE Your Job How You FEEL About Your Job Actions And Results Deal Makers and Deal Breakers

  34. Answering Research Question #1 • Q: Does the original model based on job design that explains motivation to maintain employment apply to adults with SMD who are currently working? • A:This model provides a good fit to working adults with SMD.

  35. Why is this important? • Workers’ perceptions about their jobs relate to important actions & results. • Jobs can be redesigned to improve reactions to the job (e.g., Skill Variety). • Perceived features of the job are candidates for job crafting and this can also improve reactions to jobs (e.g., Significance of Work to Others).

  36. Research Question #2 • What additions to the model were suggested by expert stakeholders?

  37. Motivation to Maintain Employment How You See Your Job (additions) How You Feel About Your Job (addition) Actions And Results (additions) Deal Makers & Breakers (additions)

  38. Dealing with Others Significance of Working to Self Feedback from Agents (Coworkers & Supervisors) Emotional Labor How You SEE Your Job (additions) Motivation to Maintain Employment

  39. Emotional Dissonance How You FEEL About Your Job (additions) Motivation to Maintain Employment

  40. Identity as a Worker Skill Match Satisfactions with Job-related Aspects (10) Issues for Workers from Vocational Programming (7) Satisfaction of Needs (6) Deal Makers and Deal Breakers Motivation to Maintain Employment

  41. Commitment to Supervisor Empowerment Career Maturity Perc’d Improvement General Health/ Mental Health Job Strain Actions and Results (additions) Motivation to Maintain Employment

  42. Additional Actions and Results % Who Agree or Strongly Agree

  43. Answering Research Question #2 • Q: Do Stakeholders Suggest Unique Additions to this Model? • A: Yes! Additions were added to every facet of the model.

  44. Research Question #3 • Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?

  45. Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?

  46. Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?

  47. 45% of Commitment to Supervisor 42% Original Model & 3% Additions 40% of Career Maturity 28% Original Model & 12% Additions 32% Of Perceived Improvement – Health 22% Original Model & 10% Additions Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model?

  48. Answering Research Question #3 • Q: Are added Actions & Results explained by the variables in the revised model? • A: Yes! All additional Actions & Results are related to original model variables. • Variables added for this research ALSO explain Actions & Results.

  49. Research Question 1 • Q: Does the original motivational model apply to working adults w/SMD? • A: The model fits very well & operates as predicted. • Implication: Worker perceptions of job design are important to consider in supported employment programs.

  50. Research Question 2 • Q: Did expert stakeholders suggest additions to the model? • A: Yes, additions were made to every facet of the model. • Implication: Outcomes valued by consumers (e.g., empowerment) need to be considered to fully understand motivation to maintain employment.