Chapter 11 Liora Kupfer Lizzie Schader
AP PSYCH • We decided to take AP psych instead of regular psych because we were motivated to take a challenging course and wanted to gain credit for college.
MOTIVATION • Motivation- a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Aaron ralston • Aaron Ralston was an experienced mountaineer that got his wrist stuck between a rock and a cliff. Nothing he did could remove the large rock so to escape he broke his bones and cut off his arm.
Theories of motivation • Instinct theory- focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors • Due to the popularity of Darwin’s theory popularity, early instinct psychologists were simply naming behaviors rather than explaining them. • Drive-reduction theory- focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact
Theories motivation 2 • Arousal theory – focuses on finding the right level of stimulation • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs- describes how some of our needs take priority over others
instinct • Instinct- a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned • Chatper 5- imprinting in birds • Chapter 7- return of salmon to their birthplace
Difference of organisms • The more complex an organism’s nervous system is, the more they are able to learn. Human’s can change their behavior to build different houses but the bird must build one type of nest.
Genes studies • Twin studies show us that genes predispose us to typical behaviors because twins separated at birth reported having similar habits and hobbies. • John Garcia’s studies on taste aversion show us that genes predispose us to typical behaviors because rats learned to stop drinking the water because they had gotten radiation poisoning. Even if they got nausea several hours after receiving radiation poisoning they still avoided the water.
homeostasis • Homeostasis- the body's ability to physiologically regulate its inner environment to ensure its stability in response to fluctuations in the outside environment and the weather. • “Human’s bodies work to maintain a state of regularity”
Drive reduction theory • Drive reduction theory- idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need by, say, eating or drinking. • -when a physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive—an aroused, motivated state
Zuckerman’s study • Those who enjoy high arousal are most likely to enjoy intense music, novel foods, and risky behaviors (Zuckerman, 1979).
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • Hierarchy of needs - Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 2 • The order of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is not universally fixed. People have starved themselves to make a political statement. Nevertheless, the simple idea that some motives are more compelling than others provides a framework for thinking about motivation.
Poor vs. wealthy nations • In poorer nations that lack easy access to money and the food and shelter it buys, financial satisfaction more strongly predicts feelings of well-being. In wealthy nations, where most are able to meet basic needs, home-life satisfaction is a better predictor. Self-esteem matters most in individualist nations, whose citizens tend to focus more on personal achievements than on family and community identity.
Ancel keys study of semistarvation • Ancel Keys conducted a study where he fed 36 male volunteers just enough to maintain their initial weight. Then, for six months, they cut this food level in half. The effects soon became visible. Without thinking about it, the men began conserving energy; they appeared listless and apathetic. After dropping rapidly, their body weights eventually stabilized at about 25 percent below their starting weights. Especially dramatic were the psychological effects. Consistent with Maslow’s idea of a needs hierarchy, the men became food-obsessed. They talked food. They daydreamed food. They collected recipes, read cookbooks, and feasted their eyes on delectable forbidden foods. Preoccupied with their unfulfilled basic need, they lost interest in sex and social activities.
Dorothea Dix • “nobody wants to kiss when they are hungry” ~ Dorothea Dix • The basic needs of humans must be met before they are able to progress in life and experience intense emotion
Irish proverb • “The full person does not understand the needs of the hungry”~ Irish proverb • It is hard to understand another person’s situation if you’ve never experienced what they are going through especially with something as devastating as hunger
Tsang’s 1938 study • Over 90% of the stomach was removed from seven rats and their behavior in a maze and in activity cages was studied. After one day's fasting the gastrectomized rats were almost as well motivated as normals in the first trial of the maze. With additional trials on the same day the operated rats increased much faster than the normal rats in both time and error scores. The activity records showed that the gastrectomized animals were three times more active one hour before feeding than one hour after feeding; but they were less active than normal rats. The results show that the enteric tract is the principal source of the motivation, an empty stomach being probably the necessary condition. Contractions of the stomach per se are not the cause of the motivation.
Glucose and insulin • main type of sugar in the blood and is the major source of energy for the body's cells. • Glucose comes from the foods we eat or the body can make it from other substances. • Glucose is carried to the cells through the bloodstream. • Several hormones, including insulin, control glucose levels in the blood
Lateral hypothalamus • -when stimulated, food intake is increased -destruction ends food intake
When a rat is food-deprived, its blood sugar levels wane and the lateral hypothalamus churns out the hunger-triggering hormone orexin. When given orexin, rats become ravenously hungry (Sakurai et al., 1998).
Ventromedial hypothalamus • Stimulating would cause you to stop eating Destroying would cause you to be hungry
Set point • Set point- “weight thermostat” that alters due to hunger and weight
Basal metobalic rate • Basal metobalic rate- body’s resting rate of energy expenditure- reduces caloric intake by half, energy level drops as well
Neophobia • Neophobia- fear trying and experiencing new things
Variety in taste • Hot cultures like hot spices. Countries with hot climates, in which food historically spoiled more quickly, feature recipes with more bacteria-inhibiting spices (Sherman & Flaxman, 2001). India averages nearly 10 spices per meat recipe; Finland, 2 spices.
Unit bias • unit bias- people believe that the amount given to them is the appropriate portion size • nutrition experts took 31 percent more when given a big rather than small bowl • 15 percent more when scooping it with a big scoop rather than a small one • For cultures struggling with rising obesity rates, the principle—that ecology influences eating—implies a practical message: Reduce standard portion sizes, and serve food with smaller bowls, plates, and utensils.
Anorexia nervosa • ¾ of diagnosed are females • 15% below normal weight • Obsessed with losing weight
Bulimia nervosa • Those diagnosed binge on fatty foods • Use vomiting, laxatives and fasting to lose weight after their binge • Exercise excessively • Weight fluctuations • Easier to hide than anorexia
Binge eating disorder • Binge eating disorder- binge eating accompanied by feelings of remorse
Pike and rodin study • Mothers of girls with eating disorders tend to focus on their own weight and on their daughters’ weight and appearance
Jacobi’s study • Families of bulimia patients have a higher-than-usual incidence of childhood obesity and negative self-evaluation (Jacobi et al., 2004).
Pate and yates study • Families of anorexia patients tend to be competitive, high-achieving, and protective (Pate et al., 1992; Yates, 1989, 1990).
Anorexic sufferers • Perfectionist standards • Fear the possibility of falling short of expectations • Intensely concerned about other’s news • Low self-evaluation
Evolutionary perspective • Genetics may influence susceptibility to eating disorders • Twins are somewhat more likely to share the disorder if they are identical rather than fraternal • (Fairburn et al., 1999; Kaplan, 2004).
Difference in cultures • These disorders have cultural and gender components • Body ideals vary across culture and time. In India, women students rate their ideals as close to their actual shape • In much of Africa—where plumpness means prosperous and thinness can signal poverty, AIDS, and hunger—bigger seems better
Gender differences • In one study of New Zealand university students and 3500 British bank and university staff, men were more likely to be overweight and women were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight • (Emslie et al., 2001; Miller & Halberstadt, 2005).
Gender differences 2 • In another study at the University of Michigan, men and women donned either a sweater or a swimsuit and completed a math test while alone in a changing room For the women but not the men, wearing the swimsuit triggered self-consciousness and shame that disrupted their math performance. • (Fredrickson et al., 1998).
Lever’s study • 9/10 women prefer to have a better body than their partner • 6/10 men want to have a mate with a better body rather than themselves
Clinically obese • Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or more • rising obesity rates around the world trail the American rates by just a few years and are projected to increase further, resulting in a “global epidemic” of diabetes
Obesity • Life threatening risks • Diabetes • High blood pressure • Heart disease • Arthritis • Cancer
Apple vs pear • Risks are greater for apple-shaped people who carry their weight in pot bellies than for pear-shaped people with ample hips and thighs
Obese people • stereotype • slow • Lazy • sloppy • BMI of 30 or more
Economic impact • Obese people make $7000 less a year compared to people that aren’t obese • (Gortmaker, 1993) • When conducting a study on job discrimination a person who acted the same with a fat suit on was rated as less qualified than when they were not wearing the fat suit • (Pingitore)
Losing weight • when caloric intake plunges, weight will decrease and then level off because metabolism drops
Fidgeting • Fidgeting contributes to weight loss because it is a chance to burn extra calories
Genetic influence on weight • Adoptive sibling’s weights are not correlated • Identical twins have similar weights • given an obese parent, a boy is three times, and a girl six times, more likely to be obese than their counterparts with normal-weight parents • Scientists have discovered many different genes that influence body weight. One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO, which nearly doubles the risk of becoming obese
Sleeping and weight gain • When you are sleep deprived, levels of leptin (which reports body fat to the brain) fall and ghrelin(the stomach hormone that stimulates appetite) counts rise
Social influence • One research team followed the social networks of 12,067 people whom they had closely studied for 32 years (Christakis & Fowler, 2007). • They discovered that people were most likely to become obese when a friend became obese. If the friend who became obese is a close mutual friend, the odds of one’s likewise becoming obese almost tripled. (Their analysis showed that the correlation among friends’ weights was not simply a matter of seeking out similar people as friends.)