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Motivation: In Learning and Teaching. Professor Dr. Bill Bauer Chapter 10 EDUC 202. Overview. What Is Motivation? Four General Approaches to Motivation Goal Orientation and Motivation Interests and Motivation Self-Schemas. Concept Map for Chapter 10. Self-Schemas. What Is Motivation.

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motivation in learning and teaching

Motivation: In Learning and Teaching

Professor Dr. Bill Bauer

Chapter 10

EDUC 202

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

overview
Overview
  • What Is Motivation?
  • Four General Approaches to Motivation
  • Goal Orientation and Motivation
  • Interests and Motivation
  • Self-Schemas

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

concept map for chapter 10
Concept Map for Chapter 10

Self-Schemas

What Is

Motivation

Teachers, Teaching, &

Educational Psychology

Interests and

Motivation

Four

Approaches to

Motivation

Goal

Orientation and

Motivation

Allyn & Bacon

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

motivation
Motivation
  • Motivation defined:
    • Internal state
    • Arouses, directs, maintains behavior
  • Intrinsic / Extrinsic
  • Locus of causality

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

four general approaches to motivation
Four General Approaches to Motivation

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

behavioral approach
Behavioral Approach
  • Rewards are consequences of behaviors
  • Incentives encourage or discourage behaviors

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

humanistic approaches
Humanistic Approaches
  • Third force psychology
  • Emphasis on personal choice
  • Needs
  • Self-actualization / Self-determination
  • Maslow’s hierarchy
  • See Figure 10.1, Woolfolk, p. 371 and Point▼Counterpoint p. 372

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

maslow s hierarchy
Deficiency needs

Survival

Pre-requisite

Survival

Safety

Belonging

Self-esteem

Being needs

Endlessly renewed

Whole person

Intellect / achievement

Aesthetics

Self-actualization

Maslow’s Hierarchy

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

slide9

Maslow’s Hierarchy

Self-

Actualization

Need

Being (growth)

Needs

Motivation increases

as needs are met

Aesthetic Needs

Need to know & Understand

Esteem Needs

Deficiency

Needs

Motivation

decreases

as needs

are met

Belongingness & Love Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective
  • Focus on thinking
  • Emphasizes intrinsic motivation
  • People are active and curious
  • Plans, goals, schemas, and expectations

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

cognitive perspective11
Cognitive Perspective
  • Attribution theory
  • Perceived cause of successes or failures
    • Locus
    • Stability
    • Responsibility
  • Attributions in the classroom
  • Teacher actions influence student attributions
  • Expectancy X Value Theory

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

attribution theory
Attribution Theory

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

weiner s terms
Locus

Stability

Responsibility

Internal / external

Stable / unstable

Controllable / uncontrollable

Weiner’s Terms

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

examples of attribution theory
Examples of Attribution Theory
  • Internal locus, stable, controllable:
    • I am good at studying for multiple choice tests, so I will do well on the next Educational Psychology Exam.
  • Internal, stable, uncontrollable:
    • Essay tests are always hard for me, so I won’t do well in American Literature.

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

sociocultural conceptions of motivation
Sociocultural Conceptions of Motivation
  • Emphasizes participation in communities of practice
  • Legitimate peripheral participation
  • Relate to authentic tasks
  • See table 10.2, Woolfolk, p. 376 for a comparison of all four approaches

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

goal orientation and motivation
Goal Orientation and Motivation

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

why goals improve performance
Why Goals Improve Performance
  • Direct attention to the task at hand
  • Mobilize effort
  • Increase persistence
  • Promote development of new strategies

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

four kinds of goals
Four Kinds of Goals
  • Learning goals / task-involved
  • Performance goals / ego-involved
  • Work-avoidance goals
  • Social goals
  • The need for relatedness

They won’t care how much you know

until they know how much you care.

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

feedback goal acceptance effective goals are
Feedback & Goal Acceptance: Effective Goals Are
  • Specific
  • Challenging
  • Attainable
  • Focused on the task
  • Supported by social relationships
  • Reinforced with feedback
  • Accepted by the student

See Family and Community Partnerships, Woolfolk, p. 380

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

reflection questions
Reflection Questions
  • What goal have you set for yourself recently?
  • Did you follow good goal setting principles?
  • How can you improve your personal goal setting practices?
  • How does goal setting affect your motivation?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

interest and emotions
Interest and Emotions

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

interest and emotions22
Interest and Emotions
  • Student interests linked with success in school
  • Fantasy to stimulate challenge & interest
  • Ensure that ‘interesting details’ are legitimately tied to learning
  • See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 382

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

arousal excitement anxiety in learning
Arousal: Excitement & Anxiety in Learning
  • Arousal: excitement, alertness, attention
  • Curiosity: novelty & complexity
  • Anxiety: uneasiness, tension, stress
  • Anxiety and effects on achievement
  • Coping with anxiety
    • Problem solving
    • Emotional management
    • Avoidance

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

implications for teachers
Implications for Teachers
  • Keep level of arousal right for learners
  • Sleepy students?
    • Introduce variety
    • Arouse curiosity
    • Surprise them
    • Wiggle break
  • See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 386

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

self schemas
Self-Schemas

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

beliefs about ability
Beliefs about Ability
  • Entity view
  • Incremental view
  • Developmental differences
  • Effects on types of goals

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

beliefs about self efficacy
Beliefs about Self-Efficacy
  • Self-efficacy, self-concept, & self-esteem
  • Sources of self-efficacy
    • Mastery experiences
    • Vicarious experiences
    • Social persuasion
  • Efficacy and motivation
  • Teacher efficacy

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

beliefs about self
Beliefs about Self
  • Self-determination or other-determination
  • Classroom environment & self-determination
  • Cognitive evaluation theory
  • Learned helplessness
  • Self-worth
    • Mastery-oriented
    • Failure-avoiding
    • Failure-accepting

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

reflection questions29
Reflection Questions
  • How will you deal with a student who is exhibiting learned helplessness?
  • One of your students is avoiding failure by not doing assignments. How will you approach this challenge?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

lessons for teachers
Lessons for Teachers
  • Emphasize students’ progress
  • Make specific suggestions for improvement
  • Stress connection between effort & accomplishment
  • Set learning goals for your students
  • Model mastery orientation

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

summary
Summary
  • What Is Motivation?
  • Four General Approaches to Motivation
  • Goal Orientation and Motivation
  • Interests and Motivation
  • Self-Schemas

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

review questions
Review Questions
  • Define motivation.
  • What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?
  • How does locus of causality apply to motivation?
  • What are the key factors in motivation according to a behavioral viewpoint? Humanistic? Cognitive? Sociocultural?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

review questions33
Review Questions
  • Distinguish between deficiency needs and being needs in Maslow’s theory.
  • What are the three dimensions of attribution in Weiner’s theory?
  • What are expectancy X value theories?
  • What is legitimate peripheral participation?
  • What kinds of goals are most motivating?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

review questions34
Review Questions
  • Describe learning, performance, work-avoidance, and social goals.
  • What makes goal setting effective in the classroom?
  • Do interests and emotions affect learning? How?
  • What is the role of arousal in learning?
  • How does anxiety interfere with learning?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

review questions35
Review Questions
  • How do beliefs about ability affect motivation?
  • What is self-efficacy and how is it different from other self-schemas?
  • What are the sources of self-efficacy and how does efficacy affect motivation?
  • How does self-determination affect motivation?
  • How does self-worth affect motivation?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

end chapter 10
End Chapter 10

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon