7th Grade Geography and History The Colonies Learning Targets: To understand how the colonies developed and prospered To compare the differences between the New England, Southern, and Middle Colonies
Do Now: Set up new notes. The new topic is “The Colonies” Date The Colonies definition
Date: The Colonies definition - a group of emigrants who settle in a distant land but governed by parent country
New England Colonies The Puritans wanted to reform the Church of England. They formed the Massachusetts Bay Company and settled in Boston.
The Colonies definition - a group of emigrants who settle in a distant land but governed by parent country New England Puritans - wanted to reform church - settled in Boston, part of New England Great - 20,000 settlers Migration
The New England colonists disagreed about what kind of society they should create. The Puritans made the Congregational Church the established church in Massachusetts. Only Rhode Island allowed other religions.
New England Puritans - established Congregational Church Rhode - allowed other religions Island
Voting rights expanded in Connecticut and Massachusetts. The New England town meeting became a symbol of self-government at a time when few Europeans had the right to vote.
The Colonies voting - expanded rights town - symbol of self-government meeting
Settlers in New England established democracy and self-government. Churches and towns governed themselves. Puritan men elected the governor and legislature of Massachusetts.
The Colonies settlers - democracy - self-government men - elected governor and legislators
Prosperity and religious diversity brought changes to Puritan New England. • New England had the world’s best fishing grounds and forests rich in timber. New Englanders used the timber to build ships for fishing, but also for shipping goods. • Merchants in New England grew rich from selling timber, fish, and other goods to the world.
New England fishing - best in world timber - rich forests - built ships merchants - grew rich
Atlantic Trade New Englanders were part of the triangular trade with Africa and West Indies. Here is how the triangular trade worked: A New England merchant ship brings rum to Africa and trades for slaves. The merchant ship brings slaves to the West Indies and trades for sugar. The merchant brings the sugar to New England, where it made into rum.
New England triangular - rum to Africa for slaves route - slaves to West Indies for sugar - sugar to NE for rum mercantilism - an economy based on trade
England saw that its colonies were growing rich and wanted part of the profits, so it passed the Navigation Acts. The colonists resented these laws and often ignored them. • England wanted the colonies to only trade with them, and it wanted goods taxed if they were traded with other countries.
New England Navigation - laws imposed by England Acts - taxed shipping and trade - often ignored by colonies
Visit: A New England Seaport, p. 108 Animated History @ ClassZone.com New England’s sea trade was the basis for the region’s prosperity.
7th Grade Geography and History The Colonies The Southern Colonies Learning Target: To understand the development of the Southern Colonies
Do Now: What were three things that made the New England colonies rich? Check your notes from yesterday. Set up your notes for today.
Date: The Southern Colonies New Topic
The Southern Colonies The colonies of the South formed a region, or distinct area of land. This Southern region included the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and Georgia.
The Appalachian Mountains bordered the region on the west. In the east was the Tidewater—flat coastal land good for farming. Appalachian Mountains Tidewater
Date: The Southern Colonies region - area of land -included the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, & Georgia Appalachians - mountains to west Tidewater - flat coastal land good for farming
Video Clip: Chapter 4, Section 3 Colonial Southern Living DVD 1
Southern Plantation 1700s
The soil and climate of the Tidewater made crops such as tobacco, rice, and indigo grow very well. These crops required a large labor force, so the region became home to the largest population of enslaved Africans in the colonies. By 1750 enslaved Africans made up over 40 percent of the South’s population.
Enslaved people worked in groups while being supervised by overseers. The labor was exhausting. Slaves often worked 15 hours a day during harvest season. In many cases, overseers whipped slaves if they did not appear to be working hard enough.
The Southern Colonies crops - grew tobacco, rice, indigo - needed large labor force slavery - home to largest population of enslaved Africans in the colonies, 40% of population - worked in brutal conditions
Video Clip: Chapter 3, Section 3 Slavery in the South DVD 1
7th Grade Geography and History The Colonies The Middle Colonies and the Backcountry Learning Target: To understand the development of the Middle Colonies
Do Now: Look at your notes. Why did slavery develop in the Southern Colonies? Set up your notes.
The Middle Colonies New Topic
The Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies were New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
Colonists wanted to settle in the Middle Colonies because the region’s rich soil and mild winters were good for farming. Rivers running through the region encouraged shipping and commerce.
The Middle Colonies included - New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware region - rich soil, mild winters rivers - helped shipping and trade
The Middle Colonies: Farms and Cities The Middle Colonies prospered because of their attitude of tolerance and rich, fertile soil for growing cash crops. The Middle Colonies produced so much grain they came to be called the “breadbasket” colonies.
The Middle Colonies prospered - attitude of tolerance - rich soil - breadbasket
The excellent harbors of the Middle Colonies were ideal sites for cities. New York City and Philadelphia grew up along rivers. Their locations enabled them to become centers of trade. Because of its enormous trade, Philadelphia became the fastest growing city in the colonies. Trade also led to New York City’s rapid growth.