7 th Grade World History Review. The Roman Empire. Section 1: Uncovering the Remote Past • Historians find evidence about the past in myths, primary sources, secondary sources, and material culture.
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Section 1: Uncovering the Remote Past
• Historians find evidence about the past in myths, primary sources, secondary sources, and material culture.
• Romans have left historians with a wealth of documents and artifacts to interpret. Pompeii offers an especially rich variety of material culture.
• Historians are always questioning their views of the past.
Section 2: The Empire at Its Height
• The Roman Republic lasted from 510 B.C. until 31 B.C., when Octavian became the first emperor of Rome.
• During the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire expanded to include Western Europe and most of the region bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
• By the third century, the Roman Empire had become too large to rule easily.
Section 3: The Western Empire Collapses
• The Roman Empire had many social and economic weaknesses.
• The Huns and the Goths threatened the Roman Empire.
• The Western Empire came under the power of the Franks and Germanic rulers.
Section 4: The Lasting Contributions of Rome
• Many countries have legal systems based on Roman law and speak languages based on Latin.
• A large network of roads helped unify the empire. Public water and sewer systems were very sophisticated.
• At first, Christianity was a persecuted religion. Later, Christianity helped to unify the empire.
Section 1: The Survival of the Eastern Empire
• Power in the Roman Empire shifted to the East under the emperor Constantine.
• Constantinople’s location made it the center of trade in the East and made it easier to defend.
• Justinian enlarged the Byzantine Empire and transformed the city of Constantinople.
Section 2: The Division of the Christian Church
• The Eastern Church, ruled by patriarchs, was well organized.
• The Byzantine emperor controlled the Eastern Church. The pope in Rome controlled the Western Church and had political influence in Western Europe.
• The Eastern and Western Christian civilizations moved apart because of political, cultural, and religious differences.
Section 3: Byzantine Civilization
• Constantinople was a cultural and political center. Byzantine civilization made important contributions to law, art, and architecture.
• The Byzantine Empire spread its culture and religion to the peoples of Eastern Europe.
• The Byzantine Empire shrank and eventually fell because of attacks from the outside and struggles from within.
Section 1: The Origins of Islam
• Islam arose in Arabia, a harsh land where people lived according to tribal culture.
• Muhammad, the founder of Islam and a political and military leader, united most of Arabia under Muslim rule.
Section 2: The Beliefs of Islam
• Islam’s most sacred texts, the Qur’an and the Sunnah, are believed to contain the word of God and the practices of Muhammad.
• One God, the individual soul, and the afterlife form the core beliefs of Islam.
• Muslims have religious duties called the Five Pillars: declaration of faith, prayer, alms-giving, fasting, and pilgrimage.
Section 3: The Spread of Islam
• In three phases, Islam was spread as far as Europe, Africa, and Asia by military conquest and peaceful conversion.
• Islam is the second-largest religion today, with two main groups, the Sunnis and the Shiites.
Section 1: The Expansion of Muslim Rule
• The caliphate reached it maximum geographic extent under the Umayyads, who established the first Islamic dynasty.
• The Abbasid Dynasty oversaw the golden age of Muslim civilization as well as the breakup of the caliphate.
Section 2: Muslims’ Daily Life
• Islamic law, or the Sharia, was developed from the Qur’an and the Sunnah. It detailed rules of personal conduct in Muslim society.
• Social class, gender roles, and education gave order to Islamic society.
Section 3: The Growth of Cities and Trade
• The Islamic world had many large, highly developed cities with strong economies.
• Traders traveled over land and by sea across the Islamic world and beyond, spreading goods, ideas, and inventions.
Section 4: Islamic Achievements
• The Muslim empire valued learning. Muslim scholars’ work in philosophy, medicine, science, mathematics, and geography influenced future civilizations.
• Muslim art, architecture, and calligraphy are noted for their use of patterns and the absence of human forms.
• The folk tales and poetry of the Muslim world were based on an oral tradition.
Section 1: Sub-Saharan Africa
• The Sahara acted as a barrier between Mediterranean and West African peoples.
• South of the Sahara, the landscape shifts from the dry Sahel to grasslands to rain forests.
• West Africa’s resources included minerals, plants, animals, and people.
Section 2: Ghana
• Ghana was founded by the Soninke people in the western Sudan.
• Traders from North Africa crossed the Sahara to exchange salt for Ghana’s gold.
• The Muslim Almoravids invaded Ghana and controlled it for a decade. Ghana never regained its previous power.
Section 3: The Rise of Mali
• After the fall of Ghana, Mali became a powerful empire in West Africa.
• Mali had a rich trade with countries in North Africa.
• The religion of Islam was an important influence in Mali.
Section 1: The Growth of Islam in West Africa
• The Songhai Empire expanded under Muslim rulers. It was the largest empire in West Africa.
• Timbuktu was a center of Islamic scholarship.
• Arabic became the language of law, learning, and business.
Section 2: West African Society
• West African societies were organized according to complex systems of kinship and class.
• Slaves made up the lowest caste in West Africa. However, slaves had some important rights.
• Trade was a central part of life in both villages and cities.
Section 3: Storytelling and the Arts of West Africa
• West Africans passed on their history and morals through an oral tradition.
• Music, dance, and sculpture played key roles in transmitting West African culture.
• West African cultures from the past have influenced modern African, European, and American societies.
Section 1: The Rise of the Mayas
• Maya civilization thrived in the southern lowlands of Mesoamerica.
• For hundreds of years, Classic Maya civilization had a rich and vibrant culture.
• Warfare, food shortages, disease, and other factors contributed to the decline of Maya civilization.
Section 2: Maya Society
• Maya society was roughly divided into two groups, nobles and commoners.
• The extended family was the basic unit of Maya society.
• The king’s authority was based on alliances, military power, and the favor of the gods.
Section 3: Maya Achievements
• Maya writing used a complex system of 800 glyphs.
• The Mayas were sophisticated astronomers and mathematicians.
• Maya buildings were impressive examples of architecture that were covered in elaborate, painted sculptures.
Section 1: The Rise of the Incas
• The peoples of the central Andes adapted to the harsh terrain by developing terrace farming and breeding hardy animals.
• The Inca Empire had its birth in southern Peru in the valley of Cuzco.
• The Inca Empire grew quickly to cover a vast region that included millions of people.
Section 2: Inca Society
• Inca society was organized according to a strict hierarchy. Each person’s role was defined by the state.
• All property in the Inca Empire was communal. There were few extremely wealthy or poor Incas.
• The Incas worshiped many gods and believed the Sapa Inca was a descendant of a god.
Section 3: Inca Achievements
• The Inca government was highly organized and efficient.
• The Inca people obeyed strict rules but were guaranteed food, clothing, and shelter.
• The Incas built sophisticated roads and buildings. They also excelled at metalwork and textile weaving.
Section 1: The Rise of the Aztecs
• The Valley of Mexico offered fertile land and a mild climate.
• The Aztecs founded Tenochtitlán on an island that provided good farmland, easy travel, and safety from attack.
• The Aztecs established a large empire in Mexico.
Section 2: Aztec Society
• Aztec society was divided into two main classes: nobles and commoners.
• The Aztec government depended on tribute from conquered states.
• The Aztecs practiced human sacrifice to appease the gods and to control their subjects.
Section 3: Aztec Achievements
• Tenochtitlán was a thriving city with impressive public and private buildings.
• The Aztecs created works of art using precious metals, colorful stones, and feathers.
• The Aztecs highly respected orators for their ability to recite stories, poems, and legends.
Section 1: The Tang and Song Dynasties
• From their capital at Chang’an, the Tang expanded China’s borders, strengthened the government, and promoted the arts.
• The Song era was one of good government. Scholar-officials rose to the top of society.
• After a barbarian invasion from the north, the Song moved south and prospered.
Section 2: Religion and Thought in China’s Golden Age
• Daoism, a philosophy of following the way of nature, became a religion by the Tang era.
• Pure Land and Chan Buddhism were popular in China. Some Daoists and Confucianists strongly opposed Buddhism.
• Confucian philosophy and religion stressed the importance of social order.
Section 3: Advances in Farming, Technology, and Trade
• Improved farming techniques enabled the population to double quickly, but changes in land tenure made some farmers poor.
• Technological inventions led to increased literacy and expanded overseas trade.
• Advances in farm production, transportation, and a money economy led to growth in trade and industry.
Section 1: The Mongol Ascendancy
• The Mongols, united under Genghis Khan, conquered a vast portion of Asia.
• Genghis Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in China and encouraged foreigners to come there.
• Marco Polo spent seventeen years in China and shared his knowledge of China with Europe on his return.
Section 2: The Ming Dynasty
• The Ming Dynasty restored centralized rule to China. China saw itself as the center of the world.
• China launched huge maritime expeditions that reached west to India, the Middle East, and Africa.
• China withdrew from official contact with other nations, though foreign trade continued to thrive.
Section 3: China’s Influence on the World
• Confucianism and Buddhism spread from China to influence Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.
• Chinese inventions such as paper, gunpowder, and the magnetic compass changed life in European countries.
Section 1: Land of the Rising Sun
• Japan consists of a chain of islands with a wide range of climates.
• People from the Asian mainland settled Japan over time.
• Japan adapted the Chinese writing system to its own language. It also embraced Buddhism when that religion arrived from Korea.
Section 2: The Age of Emperors
• Local clans and their leaders controlled early Japan.
• The Yamato clan gained power over Japan through wars and marriage alliances.
• Prince Shotoku introduced Japan’s first constitution. He borrowed heavily from China to create a strong, centralized government.
Section 3: The Development of Feudalism
• Japanese ruling society was based on rank, not merit. The court moved to Kyoto to avoid increasingly powerful Buddhists.
• After a long war, Minamoto Yoritomo became the first shogun of Japan.
• Feudalism emerged in Japan. Samurai served daimyo, who ruled like minor kings.
Section 4: Japan Under the Shoguns
• Samurai followed a strict code of honor in which loyalty to the lord was most important.
• Japan repelled two Mongol invasions with help from what they called a kamikaze, or divine wind.
• Tokugawa Ieyasu ended a long period of instability. He established his capital at Edo.
Section 1: Japan’s Cultural Flowering
• The development of a simpler form of writing made composing poetry, journals, and other literature easier.
• Women writers produced some of the most important literature of the Heian period.
• Buddhism influenced painting, sculpture, and architecture.
Section 2: The Development of Japanese Buddhism
• Buddhism became widely practiced in Japan by the Heian period. At the same time, the practice of Shinto continued.
• Some Buddhist sects emphasized prayers, ritual, and separation from society as essential to enlightenment.
• Other forms emphasized individual effort. Buddhism became increasingly popular.
Section 3: Japanese Society
• The basis of Japanese society was the clan. The welfare of the group was more important than individual needs.
• Buddhism and Confucianism emphasized ideas of harmony and unity. They viewed women as inferior.
• The economy grew because of increased numbers of artisans and merchants and through expanded trade.
Section 1: Europe in the Early Middle Ages
• Europe, which has a varied topography, is part of the Eurasian landmass.
• The Middle Ages is the period from 500 to 1500, after the Roman Empire and before the Modern Age.
• Charlemagne built an empire that covered most of central and western Europe.
Section 2: The Spread of Christianity in Europe
• The rise of monasteries and religious orders strengthened Christianity.
• Missionaries carried Christian beliefs throughout Europe.
• Eventually, most peoples of Europe were united under one Christian faith.
Section 3: The Development of European Feudalism
• Various groups of invaders entered western Europe between 800 and 1000.
• Outside attacks and a weak central government caused the feudal system to develop.
• The manor formed the economic foundation of European feudalism.
Section 1: Popes and Rulers
• Charlemagne established a Christian kingdom with close ties to the Church.
• Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, but this practice later caused problems.
• A power struggle between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII revealed conflicts between the pope and emperor in the Holy Roman Empire.
Section 2: Kings, Nobles, and the Magna Carta
• In 1066, the Normans conquered Anglo-Saxon England and transformed English life and the English language.
• The Magna Carta and English law limited royal power and guaranteed basic rights.
• Parliament was formed to advise the king and limit his power.
Section 3: Religious Crusades
• European Christians launched the Crusades to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims.
• The religious fervor of the Crusades led to the persecution of Muslims, heretics, and Jews.
Section 4: Christians and Muslims in Spain
• Muslim Spain had a highly advanced civilization.
• The Reconquista ended Muslim rule in Spain and brought the growth of Christian kingdoms.
• Spanish Muslims and Jews were persecuted during the Reconquista.
Section 1: The Revival of Trade and Towns
• Farming innovations led to an increase in the food supply, which led to population growth.
• Increases in trade resulted from increases in population and wealth. A banking system and the growth of towns followed.
Section 2: An Age of Faith
• Europeans joined mendicant religious orders and built Gothic cathedrals as expressions of religious devotion.
• Universities developed from cathedral schools. Trade gave scholars access to ancient texts.
Section 3: The Breakdown of Medieval Society
• Famine and the Hundred Years’ War struck medieval Europe. New weapons ended feudal-style warfare.
• The bubonic plague spread along trade routes. A huge loss of life and dramatic social changes followed.
Section 1: The Origins of the Renaissance
• Economic and social changes began to break down the feudal order.
• Secular learning began to weaken Church control over education.
• These trends gave rise to the Renaissance, which began in prosperous Italian city-states.
Section 2: New Ways of Viewing the World
• Renaissance thinkers revived the classical ideas of ancient Greece and Rome.
• This “new learning” helped produce three new viewpoints: humanism, secularism, and individualism.
• Artists began to produce work based on secular themes, in a more realistic style.
Section 3: The Spread of New Ideas
• Scholars and students spread the Renaissance ideas across Europe.
• Key thinkers in northern Europe — such as More, Erasmus, and Rabelais — used Renaissance ideas to promote reform.
• The development of printing and advances in literacy helped spread Renaissance ideas.
Section 4: The Renaissance Legacy
• Renaissance art, architecture, and literature left a legacy for the modern world.
• Artists and architects like Brunelleschi, Leonardo, and Michelangelo revived classical forms and developed new techniques.
• Writers such as Dante, Shakespeare, and Cervantes helped develop language and literary forms that influenced world literature.
Section 1: The Origins of the Reformation
• Abuses by the Catholic Church generated criticism and dissent in Europe.
• The ideas of Protestant reformers spread, giving rise to the Reformation.
Section 2: The Counter-Reformation
• Catholic reformers started new religious orders that improved the Church’s reputation and attracted new followers.
• The Council of Trent answered Protestant challenges and affirmed Church authority.
Section 3: The Division of Christendom
• Lutheranism and Calvinism spread through much of northern Europe. Henry VIII formed the Church of England.
• Catholics and Protestants fought wars throughout Europe. Catholicism remained strongest in southern Europe.
Section 4: The Political Impact of the Reformation
• Protestant-Catholic wars increased the power of Europe’s secular rulers.
• Europeans turned to new forms of government after the Reformation.
Section 1: The Voyages of Discovery
• Improved maps, navigation tools, and ships made possible the explorers’ ocean voyages.
• Oceangoing explorers revealed the extent of Africa, the existence of the Americas, and a western sea route from Europe to Asia.
Section 2: The Conquest of the Americas
• The rich Aztec and Inca empires fell to Spanish conquistadors.
• The colonization of New Spain and Peru enriched Spain and devastated Aztec and Inca cultures and populations.
Section 3: The Planting of Colonies
• Europeans set up trading posts, colonies, and missions around the world.
• European exploration and colonization resulted in a worldwide exchange of plants, animals, peoples, diseases, and ideas.
Section 4: The Origins of Modern Capitalism
• At the end of the Middle Ages, capitalism, a new type of economic system, arose in Europe.
• Mercantilism, an economic theory based on overseas trade, also emerged in Europe.
Section 1: The Origins of the Scientific Revolution
• The ancient Greeks applied reason to studies of the natural world. Muslim scholars later preserved much of this science.
• During the late Middle Ages, Europeans combined Greek and Muslim science with Christian teachings.
• Renaissance humanism, global exploration, and new scientific tools sparked renewed interest in science.
Section 2: The Rise of Modern Science
• Newton reinforced the sun-centered model of the universe by developing the law of gravity.
• The work of Bacon and Descartes led to the development of the scientific method.
• Section 3: The Enlightenment
• Enlightenment thinkers developed key ideas about natural rights, balanced government, and the social contract.
• Enlightenment thinkers applied reason to the study of society and the economy.
Section 4: The Influence of Enlightenment Ideas
• American colonial governments were influenced by English law and Enlightenment ideas.
• Inspired by these principles, colonial leaders signed the Declaration of Independence and separated from Great Britain.
Section 5: Linking the Past and Present
• Many ideas and values from the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment continue to influence the world today.
• Enduring religious institutions and political systems shape our lives.