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7 th Grade World History Review. The Roman Empire. Section 1: Uncovering the Remote Past • Historians find evidence about the past in myths, primary sources, secondary sources, and material culture.

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the roman empire
The Roman Empire

Section 1: Uncovering the Remote Past

• Historians find evidence about the past in myths, primary sources, secondary sources, and material culture.

• Romans have left historians with a wealth of documents and artifacts to interpret. Pompeii offers an especially rich variety of material culture.

• Historians are always questioning their views of the past.

the roman empire3
The Roman Empire

Section 2: The Empire at Its Height

• The Roman Republic lasted from 510 B.C. until 31 B.C., when Octavian became the first emperor of Rome.

• During the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire expanded to include Western Europe and most of the region bordering the Mediterranean Sea.

• By the third century, the Roman Empire had become too large to rule easily.

the roman empire4
The Roman Empire

Section 3: The Western Empire Collapses

• The Roman Empire had many social and economic weaknesses.

• The Huns and the Goths threatened the Roman Empire.

• The Western Empire came under the power of the Franks and Germanic rulers.

the roman empire5
The Roman Empire

Section 4: The Lasting Contributions of Rome

• Many countries have legal systems based on Roman law and speak languages based on Latin.

• A large network of roads helped unify the empire. Public water and sewer systems were very sophisticated.

• At first, Christianity was a persecuted religion. Later, Christianity helped to unify the empire.

the byzantine empire
The Byzantine Empire

Section 1: The Survival of the Eastern Empire

• Power in the Roman Empire shifted to the East under the emperor Constantine.

• Constantinople’s location made it the center of trade in the East and made it easier to defend.

• Justinian enlarged the Byzantine Empire and transformed the city of Constantinople.

the byzantine empire7
The Byzantine Empire

Section 2: The Division of the Christian Church

• The Eastern Church, ruled by patriarchs, was well organized.

• The Byzantine emperor controlled the Eastern Church. The pope in Rome controlled the Western Church and had political influence in Western Europe.

• The Eastern and Western Christian civilizations moved apart because of political, cultural, and religious differences.

the byzantine empire8
The Byzantine Empire

Section 3: Byzantine Civilization

• Constantinople was a cultural and political center. Byzantine civilization made important contributions to law, art, and architecture.

• The Byzantine Empire spread its culture and religion to the peoples of Eastern Europe.

• The Byzantine Empire shrank and eventually fell because of attacks from the outside and struggles from within.


Section 1: The Origins of Islam

• Islam arose in Arabia, a harsh land where people lived according to tribal culture.

• Muhammad, the founder of Islam and a political and military leader, united most of Arabia under Muslim rule.


Section 2: The Beliefs of Islam

• Islam’s most sacred texts, the Qur’an and the Sunnah, are believed to contain the word of God and the practices of Muhammad.

• One God, the individual soul, and the afterlife form the core beliefs of Islam.

• Muslims have religious duties called the Five Pillars: declaration of faith, prayer, alms-giving, fasting, and pilgrimage.


Section 3: The Spread of Islam

• In three phases, Islam was spread as far as Europe, Africa, and Asia by military conquest and peaceful conversion.

• Islam is the second-largest religion today, with two main groups, the Sunnis and the Shiites.

the islamic world
The Islamic World

Section 1: The Expansion of Muslim Rule

• The caliphate reached it maximum geographic extent under the Umayyads, who established the first Islamic dynasty.

• The Abbasid Dynasty oversaw the golden age of Muslim civilization as well as the breakup of the caliphate.

the islamic world13
The Islamic World

Section 2: Muslims’ Daily Life

• Islamic law, or the Sharia, was developed from the Qur’an and the Sunnah. It detailed rules of personal conduct in Muslim society.

• Social class, gender roles, and education gave order to Islamic society.

the islamic world14
The Islamic World

Section 3: The Growth of Cities and Trade

• The Islamic world had many large, highly developed cities with strong economies.

• Traders traveled over land and by sea across the Islamic world and beyond, spreading goods, ideas, and inventions.

the islamic world15
The Islamic World

Section 4: Islamic Achievements

• The Muslim empire valued learning. Muslim scholars’ work in philosophy, medicine, science, mathematics, and geography influenced future civilizations.

• Muslim art, architecture, and calligraphy are noted for their use of patterns and the absence of human forms.

• The folk tales and poetry of the Muslim world were based on an oral tradition.

the rise of west african empires
The Rise of West African Empires

Section 1: Sub-Saharan Africa

• The Sahara acted as a barrier between Mediterranean and West African peoples.

• South of the Sahara, the landscape shifts from the dry Sahel to grasslands to rain forests.

• West Africa’s resources included minerals, plants, animals, and people.

the rise of west african empires17
The Rise of West African Empires

Section 2: Ghana

• Ghana was founded by the Soninke people in the western Sudan.

• Traders from North Africa crossed the Sahara to exchange salt for Ghana’s gold.

• The Muslim Almoravids invaded Ghana and controlled it for a decade. Ghana never regained its previous power.

the rise of west african empires18
The Rise of West African Empires

Section 3: The Rise of Mali

• After the fall of Ghana, Mali became a powerful empire in West Africa.

• Mali had a rich trade with countries in North Africa.

• The religion of Islam was an important influence in Mali.

west african civilization
West African Civilization

Section 1: The Growth of Islam in West Africa

• The Songhai Empire expanded under Muslim rulers. It was the largest empire in West Africa.

• Timbuktu was a center of Islamic scholarship.

• Arabic became the language of law, learning, and business.

west african civilization20
West African Civilization

Section 2: West African Society

• West African societies were organized according to complex systems of kinship and class.

• Slaves made up the lowest caste in West Africa. However, slaves had some important rights.

• Trade was a central part of life in both villages and cities.

west african civilization21
West African Civilization

Section 3: Storytelling and the Arts of West Africa

• West Africans passed on their history and morals through an oral tradition.

• Music, dance, and sculpture played key roles in transmitting West African culture.

• West African cultures from the past have influenced modern African, European, and American societies.

the mayas
The Mayas

Section 1: The Rise of the Mayas

• Maya civilization thrived in the southern lowlands of Mesoamerica.

• For hundreds of years, Classic Maya civilization had a rich and vibrant culture.

• Warfare, food shortages, disease, and other factors contributed to the decline of Maya civilization.

the mayas23
The Mayas

Section 2: Maya Society

• Maya society was roughly divided into two groups, nobles and commoners.

• The extended family was the basic unit of Maya society.

• The king’s authority was based on alliances, military power, and the favor of the gods.

the mayas24
The Mayas

Section 3: Maya Achievements

• Maya writing used a complex system of 800 glyphs.

• The Mayas were sophisticated astronomers and mathematicians.

• Maya buildings were impressive examples of architecture that were covered in elaborate, painted sculptures.

the incas
The Incas

Section 1: The Rise of the Incas

• The peoples of the central Andes adapted to the harsh terrain by developing terrace farming and breeding hardy animals.

• The Inca Empire had its birth in southern Peru in the valley of Cuzco.

• The Inca Empire grew quickly to cover a vast region that included millions of people.

the incas26
The Incas

Section 2: Inca Society

• Inca society was organized according to a strict hierarchy. Each person’s role was defined by the state.

• All property in the Inca Empire was communal. There were few extremely wealthy or poor Incas.

• The Incas worshiped many gods and believed the Sapa Inca was a descendant of a god.

the incas27
The Incas

Section 3: Inca Achievements

• The Inca government was highly organized and efficient.

• The Inca people obeyed strict rules but were guaranteed food, clothing, and shelter.

• The Incas built sophisticated roads and buildings. They also excelled at metalwork and textile weaving.

the aztecs
The Aztecs

Section 1: The Rise of the Aztecs

• The Valley of Mexico offered fertile land and a mild climate.

• The Aztecs founded Tenochtitlán on an island that provided good farmland, easy travel, and safety from attack.

• The Aztecs established a large empire in Mexico.

the aztecs29
The Aztecs

Section 2: Aztec Society

• Aztec society was divided into two main classes: nobles and commoners.

• The Aztec government depended on tribute from conquered states.

• The Aztecs practiced human sacrifice to appease the gods and to control their subjects.

the aztecs30
The Aztecs

Section 3: Aztec Achievements

• Tenochtitlán was a thriving city with impressive public and private buildings.

• The Aztecs created works of art using precious metals, colorful stones, and feathers.

• The Aztecs highly respected orators for their ability to recite stories, poems, and legends.

china s golden age
China’s Golden Age

Section 1: The Tang and Song Dynasties

• From their capital at Chang’an, the Tang expanded China’s borders, strengthened the government, and promoted the arts.

• The Song era was one of good government. Scholar-officials rose to the top of society.

• After a barbarian invasion from the north, the Song moved south and prospered.

china s golden age32
China’s Golden Age

Section 2: Religion and Thought in China’s Golden Age

• Daoism, a philosophy of following the way of nature, became a religion by the Tang era.

• Pure Land and Chan Buddhism were popular in China. Some Daoists and Confucianists strongly opposed Buddhism.

• Confucian philosophy and religion stressed the importance of social order.

china s golden age33
China’s Golden Age

Section 3: Advances in Farming, Technology, and Trade

• Improved farming techniques enabled the population to double quickly, but changes in land tenure made some farmers poor.

• Technological inventions led to increased literacy and expanded overseas trade.

• Advances in farm production, transportation, and a money economy led to growth in trade and industry.

china under the mongols and the ming
China Under the Mongols and the Ming

Section 1: The Mongol Ascendancy

• The Mongols, united under Genghis Khan, conquered a vast portion of Asia.

• Genghis Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in China and encouraged foreigners to come there.

• Marco Polo spent seventeen years in China and shared his knowledge of China with Europe on his return.

china under the mongols and the ming35
China Under the Mongols and the Ming

Section 2: The Ming Dynasty

• The Ming Dynasty restored centralized rule to China. China saw itself as the center of the world.

• China launched huge maritime expeditions that reached west to India, the Middle East, and Africa.

• China withdrew from official contact with other nations, though foreign trade continued to thrive.

china under the mongols and the ming36
China Under the Mongols and the Ming

Section 3: China’s Influence on the World

• Confucianism and Buddhism spread from China to influence Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.

• Chinese inventions such as paper, gunpowder, and the magnetic compass changed life in European countries.

the rise of japan
The Rise of Japan

Section 1: Land of the Rising Sun

• Japan consists of a chain of islands with a wide range of climates.

• People from the Asian mainland settled Japan over time.

• Japan adapted the Chinese writing system to its own language. It also embraced Buddhism when that religion arrived from Korea.

the rise of japan38
The Rise of Japan

Section 2: The Age of Emperors

• Local clans and their leaders controlled early Japan.

• The Yamato clan gained power over Japan through wars and marriage alliances.

• Prince Shotoku introduced Japan’s first constitution. He borrowed heavily from China to create a strong, centralized government.

the rise of japan39
The Rise of Japan

Section 3: The Development of Feudalism

• Japanese ruling society was based on rank, not merit. The court moved to Kyoto to avoid increasingly powerful Buddhists.

• After a long war, Minamoto Yoritomo became the first shogun of Japan.

• Feudalism emerged in Japan. Samurai served daimyo, who ruled like minor kings.

the rise of japan40
The Rise of Japan

Section 4: Japan Under the Shoguns

• Samurai followed a strict code of honor in which loyalty to the lord was most important.

• Japan repelled two Mongol invasions with help from what they called a kamikaze, or divine wind.

• Tokugawa Ieyasu ended a long period of instability. He established his capital at Edo.

japan s golden age
Japan’s Golden Age

Section 1: Japan’s Cultural Flowering

• The development of a simpler form of writing made composing poetry, journals, and other literature easier.

• Women writers produced some of the most important literature of the Heian period.

• Buddhism influenced painting, sculpture, and architecture.

japan s golden age42
Japan’s Golden Age

Section 2: The Development of Japanese Buddhism

• Buddhism became widely practiced in Japan by the Heian period. At the same time, the practice of Shinto continued.

• Some Buddhist sects emphasized prayers, ritual, and separation from society as essential to enlightenment.

• Other forms emphasized individual effort. Buddhism became increasingly popular.

japan s golden age43
Japan’s Golden Age

Section 3: Japanese Society

• The basis of Japanese society was the clan. The welfare of the group was more important than individual needs.

• Buddhism and Confucianism emphasized ideas of harmony and unity. They viewed women as inferior.

• The economy grew because of increased numbers of artisans and merchants and through expanded trade.

a new civilization in europe
A New Civilization in Europe

Section 1: Europe in the Early Middle Ages

• Europe, which has a varied topography, is part of the Eurasian landmass.

• The Middle Ages is the period from 500 to 1500, after the Roman Empire and before the Modern Age.

• Charlemagne built an empire that covered most of central and western Europe.

a new civilization in europe45
A New Civilization in Europe

Section 2: The Spread of Christianity in Europe

• The rise of monasteries and religious orders strengthened Christianity.

• Missionaries carried Christian beliefs throughout Europe.

• Eventually, most peoples of Europe were united under one Christian faith.

a new civilization in europe46
A New Civilization in Europe

Section 3: The Development of European Feudalism

• Various groups of invaders entered western Europe between 800 and 1000.

• Outside attacks and a weak central government caused the feudal system to develop.

• The manor formed the economic foundation of European feudalism.

medieval conflicts and crusades
Medieval Conflicts and Crusades

Section 1: Popes and Rulers

• Charlemagne established a Christian kingdom with close ties to the Church.

• Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, but this practice later caused problems.

• A power struggle between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII revealed conflicts between the pope and emperor in the Holy Roman Empire.

medieval conflicts and crusades48
Medieval Conflicts and Crusades

Section 2: Kings, Nobles, and the Magna Carta

• In 1066, the Normans conquered Anglo-Saxon England and transformed English life and the English language.

• The Magna Carta and English law limited royal power and guaranteed basic rights.

• Parliament was formed to advise the king and limit his power.

medieval conflicts and crusades49
Medieval Conflicts and Crusades

Section 3: Religious Crusades

• European Christians launched the Crusades to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims.

• The religious fervor of the Crusades led to the persecution of Muslims, heretics, and Jews.

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Medieval Conflicts and Crusades

Section 4: Christians and Muslims in Spain

• Muslim Spain had a highly advanced civilization.

• The Reconquista ended Muslim rule in Spain and brought the growth of Christian kingdoms.

• Spanish Muslims and Jews were persecuted during the Reconquista.

a changing medieval world
A Changing Medieval World

Section 1: The Revival of Trade and Towns

• Farming innovations led to an increase in the food supply, which led to population growth.

• Increases in trade resulted from increases in population and wealth. A banking system and the growth of towns followed.

a changing medieval world52
A Changing Medieval World

Section 2: An Age of Faith

• Europeans joined mendicant religious orders and built Gothic cathedrals as expressions of religious devotion.

• Universities developed from cathedral schools. Trade gave scholars access to ancient texts.

a changing medieval world53
A Changing Medieval World

Section 3: The Breakdown of Medieval Society

• Famine and the Hundred Years’ War struck medieval Europe. New weapons ended feudal-style warfare.

• The bubonic plague spread along trade routes. A huge loss of life and dramatic social changes followed.

the renaissance
The Renaissance

Section 1: The Origins of the Renaissance

• Economic and social changes began to break down the feudal order.

• Secular learning began to weaken Church control over education.

• These trends gave rise to the Renaissance, which began in prosperous Italian city-states.

the renaissance55
The Renaissance

Section 2: New Ways of Viewing the World

• Renaissance thinkers revived the classical ideas of ancient Greece and Rome.

• This “new learning” helped produce three new viewpoints: humanism, secularism, and individualism.

• Artists began to produce work based on secular themes, in a more realistic style.

the renaissance56
The Renaissance

Section 3: The Spread of New Ideas

• Scholars and students spread the Renaissance ideas across Europe.

• Key thinkers in northern Europe — such as More, Erasmus, and Rabelais — used Renaissance ideas to promote reform.

• The development of printing and advances in literacy helped spread Renaissance ideas.

the renaissance57
The Renaissance

Section 4: The Renaissance Legacy

• Renaissance art, architecture, and literature left a legacy for the modern world.

• Artists and architects like Brunelleschi, Leonardo, and Michelangelo revived classical forms and developed new techniques.

• Writers such as Dante, Shakespeare, and Cervantes helped develop language and literary forms that influenced world literature.

the reformation
The Reformation

Section 1: The Origins of the Reformation

• Abuses by the Catholic Church generated criticism and dissent in Europe.

• The ideas of Protestant reformers spread, giving rise to the Reformation.

the reformation59
The Reformation

Section 2: The Counter-Reformation

• Catholic reformers started new religious orders that improved the Church’s reputation and attracted new followers.

• The Council of Trent answered Protestant challenges and affirmed Church authority.

the reformation60
The Reformation

Section 3: The Division of Christendom

• Lutheranism and Calvinism spread through much of northern Europe. Henry VIII formed the Church of England.

• Catholics and Protestants fought wars throughout Europe. Catholicism remained strongest in southern Europe.

the reformation61
The Reformation

Section 4: The Political Impact of the Reformation

• Protestant-Catholic wars increased the power of Europe’s secular rulers.

• Europeans turned to new forms of government after the Reformation.

the age of exploration
The Age of Exploration

Section 1: The Voyages of Discovery

• Improved maps, navigation tools, and ships made possible the explorers’ ocean voyages.

• Oceangoing explorers revealed the extent of Africa, the existence of the Americas, and a western sea route from Europe to Asia.

the age of exploration63
The Age of Exploration

Section 2: The Conquest of the Americas

• The rich Aztec and Inca empires fell to Spanish conquistadors.

• The colonization of New Spain and Peru enriched Spain and devastated Aztec and Inca cultures and populations.

the age of exploration64
The Age of Exploration

Section 3: The Planting of Colonies

• Europeans set up trading posts, colonies, and missions around the world.

• European exploration and colonization resulted in a worldwide exchange of plants, animals, peoples, diseases, and ideas.

the age of exploration65
The Age of Exploration

Section 4: The Origins of Modern Capitalism

• At the end of the Middle Ages, capitalism, a new type of economic system, arose in Europe.

• Mercantilism, an economic theory based on overseas trade, also emerged in Europe.

revolutions in thought
Revolutions in Thought

Section 1: The Origins of the Scientific Revolution

• The ancient Greeks applied reason to studies of the natural world. Muslim scholars later preserved much of this science.

• During the late Middle Ages, Europeans combined Greek and Muslim science with Christian teachings.

• Renaissance humanism, global exploration, and new scientific tools sparked renewed interest in science.

revolutions in thought67
Revolutions in Thought

Section 2: The Rise of Modern Science

  • Beginning with Copernicus in the 1500s, scholars proved that the sun is the center of the universe.

• Newton reinforced the sun-centered model of the universe by developing the law of gravity.

• The work of Bacon and Descartes led to the development of the scientific method.

revolutions in thought68
Revolutions in Thought

• Section 3: The Enlightenment

• Enlightenment thinkers developed key ideas about natural rights, balanced government, and the social contract.

• Enlightenment thinkers applied reason to the study of society and the economy.

revolutions in thought69
Revolutions in Thought

Section 4: The Influence of Enlightenment Ideas

• American colonial governments were influenced by English law and Enlightenment ideas.

• Inspired by these principles, colonial leaders signed the Declaration of Independence and separated from Great Britain.

revolutions in thought70
Revolutions in Thought

Section 5: Linking the Past and Present

• Many ideas and values from the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment continue to influence the world today.

• Enduring religious institutions and political systems shape our lives.