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Gun Control. Telling the Emperor he has no clothes Political marketing Gun control Academic freedom The NRA and methodology September 11th opened eyes Terrorists, not gun owners. Myth Number 1. Criminal violence means guns. Criminal violence means guns?. Violent Crimes (1994)

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gun control
Gun Control
  • Telling the Emperor he has no clothes
  • Political marketing
  • Gun control
  • Academic freedom
  • The NRA and methodology
  • September 11th opened eyes
  • Terrorists, not gun owners
myth number 1
Myth Number 1
  • Criminal violence means guns.
criminal violence means guns
Criminal violence means guns?

Violent Crimes (1994)

TOTAL WITH FIREARMS

  • Homicide 596 196 [32%]
  • Attempted murder 918 306 [33%]
  • Assault 236,364 5,959 [3%]
  • Sexual Assault 31,690 50 [< 1%]
  • Other sexual offences 3,812 0
  • Abduction 1,130 0
  • Robbery 28,888 7,371 [26%]
  • Total violent crimes 303,398 18,204 [6% of violent crimes]
criminal violence means guns7
Criminal violence means guns?

Total deaths with firearms 1,031 100%

  • Suicide with firearm 818 79%
  • Murder with firearm 159 15%
  • Firearm accident 45 5%
  • Legal intervention 9 1%

1997 statistics

criminal violence means guns8
Criminal violence means guns?

Suicides (1997)

  • Total suicides 3,671
  • Firearms 818 [22%]
criminal violence means guns9
Criminal violence means guns?

Accidental Deaths (1997)

  • Total accidental deaths 8,801
  • Motor vehicles 3,042
  • Falls 2,622
  • Surgical/medical misadventures 193
  • Firearms 45 [1%]
myth number 2
Myth Number 2
  • Women are the victims of gun violence.
women are the victims
Women are the victims?

Homicide in Canada (1994)

  • Total homicides 596
    • Involving a firearm 196 [32%]
  • Victims
    • Male 398 [66%]
    • Female 198 [33%]
  • Spousal homicides 85
    • Women killed by conjugal intimate 65
    • Women killed by conjugal intimate w/firearm 24Source: Special request, Senator Anne Cools, her testimony to The Supreme Court of Canada
women are the victims12
Women are the victims?

Homicide in Canada (1999)

  • Total 536
    • Involving a firearm 165 [30%]
    • Committed during another criminal offence 152
  • Victims
    • Male 67%
    • Female 33%
    • Consumed alcohol/drugs 38%
    • Known criminal record 41%
  • Accused
    • Consumed alcohol/drugs 50%
    • Known criminal record 62%
    • Previous conviction for violent offence 60%
    • Known history of spousal violence 74%
myth number 3
Myth Number 3
  • Gun ownership leads to violence
gun ownership violence
Gun ownership violence?

Household Ownership of Firearms

CITY/TOWN SIZE HANDGUN FIREARM

  • Over 500,000 1% 11%
  • 10,000 – 499,999 4% 24%
  • Under 10,000 6% 44%

Source: Mauser and Buckner (1995)

gun ownership violence15
Gun ownership violence?

Regional Variations in Violent Crimes

(1994)

CANADA RURAL URBAN

  • Total violent crimes 95,993 9,740 86,253
  • Involving firearms 5,929 370 5,559
  • Percent 6.2% 3.8% 6.4%

Source:special request, Stats Can Incident-Based Survey [1995].

gun ownership violence16
Gun ownership violence?

Urban and Rural Firearm Deaths

in Canada (1991)

CITY/TOWN SIZE HOMICIDE RATES

  • Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver 2.64
  • 50,000 + 2.15
  • 49,999 – 10,000 2.06
  • 9,999 – 1,000 1.68
  • Less than 1,000 2.32

Source: Canadian Firearms Centre Report, Urban and Rural Firearm Deaths in Canada

myth number 4
Myth Number 4
  • Guns are not used in self-defence in Canada
myth number 5
Myth Number 5
  • Gun control keeps us safe.
gun control keeps us safe
Gun control keeps us safe?

Trends in handgun homicides in Canada (rates as percent of gun homicides and total homicides)

gun control keeps us safe21
Gun control keeps us safe?

History of gun law in Canada

  • 1935
    • handguns registered
  • 1977
    • required a police permit to purchase a firearm [Firearms Acquisition Certificate]
    • ban a large variety of weapons, including fully automatic firearms
    • eliminated protection of property as a legitimate reason for registering handguns
    • introduced penalty for “unsafe storage” of firearms
    • introduced requirements for Firearms and Ammunition Business Permits
gun control keeps us safe22
Gun control keeps us safe?
  • 1991
    • registration of semi-automatic military-style rifles
    • ban of converted automatic rifles
    • ban of high-capacity magazines
    • ban of “non-sporting” ammunition
    • new FAC requirements: applicants have to:
      • complete the firearm safety course,
      • Fill out the long application form (35 questions),
      • provide a passport-type photograph
      • obtain two references (one a wife or spouse)
      • mandatory 28-day waiting period
    • increased regulations for firearms dealers
    • specific regulations for safe storage, handling and transportation of firearms
    • introduction of firearm safety course for FAC applicants
gun control keeps us safe23
Gun control keeps us safe?
  • 1995
    • prohibition and confiscation of over half of all registered handguns (so called “Saturday Night Specials”)
    • introduction of firearms owners licences
    • POL – Possession Only Licence
    • PAL – Possession and Acquisition Licence
    • new requirements for PAL: applicants have to:
      • have separate rifle and handgun safety courses
      • fill out the long application form (35 questions)
      • provide a passport-type photograph
      • obtain two references (Plus spouse or former spouse)
    • new stricter regulations for safe storage, handling and transportation of firearms
gun control keeps us safe24
Gun control keeps us safe?
  • 1995 (continued)
    • regulation of shooting clubs, shooting ranges, and gun shows
    • new regulations for export and import of firearms
    • broadening of police powers of “search and seizure”
    • suspects of Firearms Act required to testify against themselves
    • licensing of firearm owners
  • January 2003
    • All firearms required to be registered
gun control keeps us safe26
Gun control keeps us safe?
  • Brief Summary of Evaluation Studies of Canadian Firearms Legislation Dependent Significant Variable Effect
    • Scarff (1983) Homicide rate Yes
    • Sproule and Kennett (1988) Homicide rate No
    • Mundt (1990) Homicide rate No
    • Mundt (1990) Armed robbery rate No
    • Mauser and Holmes (1992) Homicide rate No
    • Mauser and Maki (1998) Armed robbery rate No
    • Department of Justice (1996) Homicide rate Yes
gun control keeps us safe27
Gun control keeps us safe?

Evaluating 1977 Canadian Gun Legislation: Homicide Rate

gun control keeps us safe28
Gun control keeps us safe?

Evaluating 1977 Canadian Gun Legislation: Robbery, Armed Robbery, and Robbery with Firearm

us vs canada comparison
US vs. Canada Comparison

Sources: Juristat, "Homicide in 1992" vol.14, No 4.

Crime in the United States1992, FBI

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Ready, aim, fire
  • Fire, aim, ready
  • Fear and freedom
  • Cultural diversity

Thanks to Nora and Ted Sterling