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Gun Control

Gun Control

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Gun Control

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  1. Gun Control Megan Hazelton, Madison Kramer, Joe O’Brien, Joe Salamone, Scott Tremoulis

  2. In One Year… • 31,224 PEOPLE DIE FROM GUN VIOLENCE • 12,632 PEOPLE ARE MURDERED • 683 CHILDREN AND TEENS KILL THEMSELVES • 351 ARE KILLED BY POLICE INTERVENTION • 3,067 CHILDREN AND TEENS DIE FROM GUN VIOLENCE • 17,352 PEOPLE KILL THEMSELVES • 679 PEOPLE ARE SHOT AND INJURED DURING POLICE INTERVENTIONS • 613 PEOPLE ARE KILLED ACCIDENTALLY • 2,161 CHILDREN AND TEENS ARE MURDERED

  3. Defining the Problem • Gun violence: school shootings and mass killings • Ease of obtaining weapons • Gun trafficking • United States Constitution • Political issue

  4. Causes and Effects • No legislation at federal level • Varying state laws • More than 2,400 Americans shot since Tucson shooting

  5. Second Amendment • “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a Free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed” • Individual right to keep and bear arms • District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) • Extended to state and local governments • McDonald v. City of Chicago (2010)

  6. Federal Policies • National Firearms Act of 1938 • Strict registration requirements • Gun Control Act of 1968 • Ban interstate sales of firearms and ammunition • Prohibits minors from purchasing weapons • Limits access to assault weapons • Requires licenses for manufacturers, importers, and dealers • Implements penalties • Firearm Ownership Protection Act of 1986 • Prohibits establishment of firearm and their owners registry

  7. GCA: Prohibitive Criteria • Felony convictions • Fugitive from justice • Convicted of domestic violence misdemeanors • Subject to any restraining orders • Mentally disabled or been committed to mental institution • Addict or user of any controlled substance • Non-resident of State in which the licensee’s place of business is located • Illegal alien • Dishonorable discharge from U.S. Armed Forces

  8. Brady Law • Most recent federal legislation on gun control • Signed in 1993 with permanent provisions since 1998 • Developed National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) • Established for Federal Firearms Licensees (FFLs) to receive instant background checks on eligibility of person purchasing weapon • Searches the buyer’s background for prohibitive criteria

  9. States Policy • Ohio • Cities cannot pass gun control restrictions stricter than the state’s laws • “shall-issue” state • New York • Purchaser waiting period is up to 6 months • Need both federal and state license • Cities cannot pass gun control restrictions stricter than the state’s laws • “may-issue” state • Texas • Considering bills to allow guns on college campuses and guns and ammunitions will be exemptions from taxes • “shall-issue” state

  10. Government Involvement • Federal Government • Congress • Executive • Supreme Court • State Governments • Local Governments

  11. Federal Government • Regulates possession, sale, and transport of firearms • Places age limits on firearms purchase • Controls interstate firearms trade • Licensing of Dealers

  12. Congress • Firearms Legislation Introduced by the House and Senate Judiciary Committees • House Judiciary subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security • Ex: Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act

  13. Enforcement • Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) • “violent criminals, criminal organizations, the illegal use and trafficking of firearms, the illegal use and storage of explosives, acts of arson and bombings, acts of terrorism, and the illegal diversion of alcohol and tobacco products” • The Secretary of the Treasury • Transportation Security Administration (TSA)

  14. Supreme Court • Determines if firearms regulations at any level of government are Constitutional • Based Primarily on the Second Amendment • District of Columbia v. Heller • McDonald et al. v. City of Chicago, Illinois et al.

  15. State Regulations (Ohio) • No permit is required to purchase a weapon • Age Requirements (18 and 21 to purchase handguns) • Permit for Concealed Carry • 2006 law passed by state legislature prevents local governments from enacting stricter gun control laws than the state

  16. Local and State Firearms Policy (Ohio) • City of Cleveland challenges Ohio law • City contends that high rates of violent crime within city limits make it necessary to implement strict gun control policies • City claims policies are necessary to protect its citizens • City wants to ban assault weapons and prevent citizens from openly carrying weapons • Ohio Supreme Court rules in favor of the state

  17. Local and National Firearms Policy (Chicago) • City of Chicago goes beyond state ID card requirement and bans handguns within city limits • Challenge to the ban is brought before the U.S. Supreme Court in McDonald et al. v. City of Chicago, Illinois et al. • High Court ruled that the ban was unconstitutional

  18. Changes in Chicago Policy • As a result of High Court ruling • Citizens can only posses firearms within their homes • Firearms Cannot be sold within the city • A training course is required for firearms ownership

  19. Non-Governmental Actors • Interest groups speak out to be heard by state and federal legislators • Also attempt to gain momentum by persuading the general public

  20. The Brady Campaign • Named after Ex-White House Press Secretary Jim Brady who survived an assassination attempt • Supports stricter gun control laws (as opposed to a complete gun ban) • A main focus is that criminals can easily access guns

  21. The Brady Campaign Wants… • Limited number of guns bought per person • Strict background checks to prevent felons and mentally ill from buying guns • Banning powerful military style weapons

  22. How The Brady Campaign Lobbies • Sending recommendations to key policy makers • Releasing articles to the public • Evaluating the President and releasing a report card on the status of promised gun-violence control laws

  23. National Rifle Association • NRA – Institute for Legislative Action • Preserving the rights promised by the Second Amendment • Law abiding individuals should be able to purchase and possess firearms

  24. Ohio Pistol and Rifle Association • Official Ohio Branch of the NRA • Mission is to support firearm owners and protect the Second Amendment rights • Recently, Ohio Gun Control has allowed gun owners to easily possess firearms in their vehicles • Gun owners are now allowed to carry firearms into bars if not consuming alcohol

  25. Are Gun Laws Effective: Studies • “Guns don’t kill people, People kill people” • Cook & Ludwig (2004) • USA vs Canada • Kellerman (1996) • Increased occurrence of gun related injuries (1992 -94) • Cummings, Grossman, Rivara and Koepsell (1997) • Gun Safety storage laws decreased accidental injuries by 23% (1990 – 94) • Lott and Whitley (2001) • Gun Storage Laws are ineffective • Kwon, Scott, Safranski and Bae (1997) • Gun related accidents are more closely linked to other socioeconomic variables

  26. Are Gun Laws Effective: Studies • Kwon, Scott, Safranski and Bae (1997) • Gun related accidents are more closely linked to other socioeconomic variables • Lott Mustard (1997) • Concealed hand gun laws reduce violent crimes • Dezhbakhsh and Rubin (1998) • Contradict Lott and Mustard • Kleck and Hogan (1999) • Gun ownership is not linked to homicidal behavior • Task Force on Community Preventive Services (2003) • Ineffectiveness of all regulatory gun laws • www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyoLuTjguJA

  27. Alternatives • National Rifle Association (NRA) • Stronger Federal Laws • Canada • Britain • Lott (1997 & 2010) • Cook and Ludwig (2004) • Manhattan Institute • Don’t alter existing policies • New York City • Boston

  28. Figures

  29. Figures

  30. Statistics • Guns Rights: • Total Contribution: • $22, 467, 579 • Donations to Republicans: • $ 19, 195, 400 (85%) • Donations to Democrats: • $3, 231, 405 (14%) • Gun Control • Donations to Democrats • $1, 776, 310 (94%) • Donations to Republicans • $112, 326 (6%) • Total contributions • $1, 888, 886

  31. Statistics • Households with a gun: • Percent: 40-45% • Number: 47-53 million • Adults owing a gun: • Percent: 30-34% • Number: 70-80 million • Adults owning a handgun: • Percent: 17-19% • Number: 40-45 million

  32. Statistics • Percentage owning a firearm: • Households: 42% • Individuals: 30% • Male: 47% • Female: 13% • White: 33% • Nonwhite: 18% • Republican: 41% • Independent: 27% • Democrat: 23%

  33. Recommendation • Federal act called the National Handgun and Rifle Act • Legal to carry guns, but stiff fines and jail-time for illegitimate gun possession • Money collected by fines goes to state governments to increase quality of background checks and to create databases of gun owners • Additional money given to local police departments to crack down on gun violence and provide gun education