The War of 1812
America's 2nd War for Independence
Causes of the War
Impressment Between 1808-1811 Britain impressed over 5,000 American sailors.
Native American Attacks The British were supplying the Native Americans on the frontier with guns to lead attacks on American settlers
Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811 • General William HenryHarrison governor ofthe Indiana Territory. • Tecumseh organized a confederacy of Indian tribes to fight for their homelands. • Tecumseh’s brother fought against Harrison and was defeated at Tippecanoe. • This made Harrison a national hero!
“War Hawks” John C. Calhoun [SC] Henry Clay [KY]
American Problems • The US was unprepared militarily: • Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britain’s800 ships. • Most troops came from state militias and not a proper army • Financially unprepared: • Flood of paper $. • Revenue from import tariffs declined. • Regional disagreements between New England and other areas of the country
Battle of Fort McHenry,1814 Oh Say Can You SeeBy the Dawn’s Early Light… -- Francis Scott Key
Hartford Convention • The New England states met in Hartford, Connecticut in December 1814 • Because trade was cut off during the war, New Englanders’ way of life of shipping & trading was threatened • The states discussed if they should SECEDE from the United States • SECEDE means to “break away” and start your own country
Treaty of GhentDecember 24, 1814 This treaty ends the War of 1812
The Battle of New Orleans, January 8, 1815 Because of slow communication across the ocean, this battle takes place AFTER the Treaty of Ghent is signed that ends the war.