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CELLULAR RESPIRATION. How Cells Release Energy. Cellular Respiration. Anaerobic Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular Respiration. 1. Glycolysis. 1. Glycolysis. 2. Fermentation. 3. Krebs Cycle. 4. Electron Transport System. Anaerobic Cellular Respiration. 1. Glycolysis.

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cellular respiration

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

How Cells Release Energy

slide2

Cellular Respiration

Anaerobic Cellular Respiration

Aerobic Cellular Respiration

1. Glycolysis

1. Glycolysis

2. Fermentation

3. Krebs Cycle

4. Electron Transport System

slide3

Anaerobic Cellular Respiration

1. Glycolysis

2. Fermentation

slide4

Glycolysis

  • (Sugar Splitting)

Takes place in the cytoplasm of all cells

C6H12O6

Glucose

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 NADH

Pyruvate

Pyruvate

slide5

2. Fermentation

Alcoholic Fermentation

Pyruvate

2 NADH

2 NAD+

Alcohol

CO2

+

The Significance of fermentation is to regenerate NAD+

from NADH for its continuous role in glycolysis

slide6

2. Fermentation

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Pyruvate

2 NADH

2 NAD+

Lactic acid

The Significance of fermentation is to regenerate NAD+

from NADH for its continuous role in glycolysis

slide7

Fermentation does NOT produce

additional ATP

The Significance of fermentation is to regenerate NAD+

from NADH for its continuous role in glycolysis

During anaerobic cellular respiration only 2 ATP are

produced from one initial glucose molecule

slide8

Aerobic Cellular Respiration

1. Glycolysis

3. Krebs Cycle: Step a

3. Krebs Cycle

3. Krebs Cycle: Step b

4. Electron Transport System

slide9

Glycolysis

  • (Sugar Splitting)

Takes place in the cytoplasm of all cells

C6H12O6

Glucose

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 NADH

Pyruvate

Pyruvate

slide11

The 2 pyruvates produced by glycolysis in the

cytoplasm are transported into the mitochondrion to

continue aerobic cellular respiration in Krebs cycle

slide12

3. Krebs Cycle

Takes place in the mitochondrion

Step a

1 CO2

1 NADH

1stpyruvate

Acetyl group

+

CoA

CoA

Acetyl-CoA

slide13

3. Krebs Cycle

Takes place in the mitochondrion

Step a

1 CO2

1 NADH

2nd pyruvate

Acetyl group

+

CoA

CoA

Acetyl-CoA

slide14

The output of Krebs Cycle

step a is:

2 CO2

2 NADH

slide15

3. Krebs Cycle

CoA

+

Step b

1st Acetyl-CoA

2 CO2

4-C- compound

1 ATP

3 NADH

1 FADH2

6-C-Compound

slide16

3. Krebs Cycle

CoA

+

Step b

2nd Acetyl-CoA

2 CO2

4-C- compound

1 ATP

3 NADH

1 FADH2

6-C-Compound

slide17

The output of Krebs Cycle

step b is:

2 ATP

4 CO2

6 NADH

2 FADH2

slide18

The output of Krebs Cycle

step a is:

2 CO2

2 NADH

The output of Krebs Cycle

step b is:

2 ATP

4 CO2

6 NADH

2 FADH2

The output of Krebs Cycle

both steps is:

2 ATP

6 CO2

8 NADH

2 FADH2

summary of energy harvest
GLYCOLYSIS

2 ATP

2 NADH

Krebs Cycle:

2 ATP

6 CO2

8 NADH

2 FADH2

4 ATP can be used for cellular work

6 CO2 are released

Raw materials for electron transport system:

10 NADH

2 FADH2

Summary of energy harvest
slide22

The Electron Transport System

1. NADH and FADH2 pass electrons to the first protein

in the electron transport system (ETS).

 2. Electrons pass from energy carrier to the next.

 3. With each transfer, energy is released

4. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions into

the outer compartment of the mitochondrion.

slide23

5. Hydrogen ions build up in the outer compartment

(higher concentration of H+ in the outer compartment

than in the matrix).

slide25

6. Hydrogen ions flow back across the membrane

through an enzyme (ATP synthase) that synthesizes ATP

7. The last protein in the ETS finally passes electrons

to oxygen along with hydrogen ions, generatingwater.

electron transport system
Electron Transport System

Most of ATP is produced during ETS

ETS produces 32 ATP

the overall equation of cr
The Overall Equation of CR

C6H12O6 + 6 O2

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP + Heat