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OBJECTIVES OF INSECT DEFOLIATORS At the end of this section students should be able to:

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OBJECTIVES OF INSECT DEFOLIATORS At the end of this section students should be able to: 1) Know the difference among polyphagous, oligophagous and monophagous defoliators. 2) Know the principles of detection, evaluation and management of defoliators.

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slide1

OBJECTIVES OF INSECT DEFOLIATORS

  • At the end of this section students should be able to:
  • 1) Know the difference among polyphagous, oligophagous and monophagous defoliators.
  • 2) Know the principles of detection, evaluation and management of defoliators.
  • Know the life history, economic importance and ecological impact of the following defoliating insects:
  • (A) spruce budworm
  • (B) gypsy moth
  • (C) Douglas-fir tussock moth
  • (D) Defoliators of the Southeastern U.S.
slide2

Defoliation damage by insects can

  • easily be recognized from symptoms:
  • Foliage thin or absent
  • Frass “raining” from trees
  • Sometimes webs are apparent
  • Larva crawling up/down tree
slide4

Symptoms

Leaf chewers – eat entire leaf and include the

Pine sawflies, Gypsy moths, Spruce bud worm

slide5

Symptoms

Leaf skeletonizers – eat soft parts or the

epidermal layers – not the veins.

slide6

Symptoms

Leaf miners – bore inside leaves, between

The upper and lower epidermis. Includes, the

Pine needle miners and the Aspen leaf miner

slide8

Damage by defoliators

  • Primary Damage –
  • Trees are killed by defoliation
  • or growth is reduced.
  • Conifers – 1 severe defoliation
  • can kill tree
  • Deciduous trees – better able
  • to stand defoliation
slide9

Damage by defoliators

Secondary damage occurs when

defoliated trees are weakened and

subject to attack by secondary pests

such as wood borers, bark beetles, or

soil fungi – Armillaria spp

slide10

Defoliators – Taxonomic Groups

Lepidoptera: Many insect species

Includes Pine Butterfly, spruce budworm

Gypsy moth, catalpa worms

slide11

Defoliators

Hymenoptera-

Sawflies

Red Headed

Pine Sawfly

Loblolly pine

Sawfly

Oak slug sawfly

slide12

Defoliators –

Coleoptera: Cottonwood Leaf beetle, June beetles,

Elm leaf beetle, & the Locust leaf miner.

slide13

Generalized Host Range of defoliators

Polyphagous - Many hosts, e.g.

Gypsy Moth

Oligophagous – Few Hosts, e.g.

Spruce budworm

Monophagous – one hosts, e.g.

Larch casebearer

slide14

Population Dynamics:

Sporadic -

Periodic -

slide19

Spruce Budworm

egg mass on needle

slide23

Populations are cyclic with peaks roughly every 8-10 yr. Major outbreaks every 60 years or so that corresponds with maturation of Balsam fir stand.

slide24

Management Considerations:

Stand Composition-

Chemicals-

Biologicals-

slide26

End of Spruce

Budworm Section