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Chapter 11: Factors affecting access to sport and physical activity II – the interpersonal level. Homework In a 300-word response, outline the most predominant factors of the interpersonal level that have contributed to your participation in basketball. Last Weeks Homework

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slide1

Chapter 11: Factors affecting access to sport and physical activity II

– the interpersonal level

slide2

Homework

  • In a 300-word response, outline the most predominant factors of the interpersonal level that have contributed to your participation in basketball.
slide3

Last Weeks Homework

  • In a 300-word response, outline the most predominant factors of the individual level that contribute to your participation in basketball.
slide4

Homework – Textbook answer

  • Decide on the most predominant factors of the individual level that have contributed to basketball.
  • Decide on three to five most relevant past experiences that will support these predominant factors.
  • Decide on the level of success your participation in basketball has achieved and to what extent your predominant factors have contributed towards this.
slide5

1. Personal temperament

2. Individual needs

Equity and access to physical activity at the individual level

3. Personal beliefs, values, attitudes and stereotypes

5. Genetic predisposition

4. Self-concept and

self-esteem

Influences on access and personal choice to engage in physical activity

YOUR ANSWER NEEDS TO COME FROM THESE 5 AREAS!!!

slide6

Chapter 11: Factors affecting access to sport and physical activity II

– the interpersonal level

slide7

Figueroa’s framework – the interpersonal level

The interpersonal level is one of five levels of Figueroa’s framework to help evaluate and explore equity and access issues within society.

The interpersonal level focuses on the way individuals interact with one another and the influence that these interactions will have on the opportunities to access physical activity.

slide8

Figueroa’s framework – the interpersonal level (cont.)

Central to the interpersonal level are the links between the values, beliefs and behaviours of people and how these are enforced or presented to the individual.

Copy Figure 11.1 into your books

slide9

Checking for understanding question

  • Outline in one sentence the central focus of the interpersonal level of Figueroa’s framework.

• The interpersonal level of Figueroa’s framework focuses on the way individuals interact with one another and the influences that other people have over other individuals’ opportunities.

slide10

Socialisation

  • The process by which people acquire the values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour.
slide11

Interacting with others – the socialisation process

Socialisation initially begins with parents who develop expectations for their children’s involvement and achievement in sport.

Over the first years of life, as an infant and child, socialisation is more of a passive (one way) process for the individual. Children will accept what they see and are told by parents and teachers as being truths.

Socialising agency

(sport)

Beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours of others are displayed

Individual learner

(participant)

Beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours are accepted and replicated.

slide12

Did you know?

  • Children of two active parents were 6 times more likely to be involved in physical activity than children of two parents who were inactive.
slide13

Interacting with others – the socialisation process (cont.)

As children develop into adolescence socialisation becomes a much more interactive process with people regulating the beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours of others against their own and choosing which to internalise.

Socialising agency

(sport)

Beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours of others are displayed

Individual learner

(participant)

Beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours are filtered and modified

slide14

Interacting with others – the socialisation process (cont.)

Through the socialisation process a diverse range of relationships will affect equity at the interpersonal level of Figueroa’s framework.

Relationship & Interactions with parents

Relationship & Interactions with siblings

Access and opportunities

created at the

interpersonal level

Relationship & Interactions with friends & peers

Relationship & Interactions with coaches & teachers

Interactions & observations of spectators

Interactions & observations of the

media

slide15

Activity 11.1 pg 340

  • Read the questions and discuss your answers
slide16

Role models in the process of socialisation

  • Read pg 341 as a class
  • Complete Activity 11.2
slide17

Checking for understanding questions

2. In your own words, describe what is meant by the term ‘socialisation’.

  • process by which people acquire the values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour. One of the largest factors in the socialisation process will be interactions people have with those closest to them.
slide18

Checking for understanding questions

3. Explain why socialisation for a young child can be described as a one-way process

Socialisation at a young age is a one-way process because children tend to accept attitudes and beliefs without question and instead tend to replicate them. Children generally lack the mental capacity to see the world and themselves in more abstract ways.

slide19

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of parents

Generally stronger relationships will have greater influence over what an individual believes and values or how they act.

Therefore the biggest influence on the opportunities to access physical activity, and on the creation of values and attitudes towards physical activity, will come from the people a child has the strongest relationship and most regular contact with – their parents.

slide20

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of parents (cont.)

The experiences provided by parents allow opportunities for socialisation to occur and the child learns about sport participation through observation, imitation and modelling of parental involvement.

By having a significant member of the family providing sporting opportunity, support and encouragement and role modelling physical activity, children are more likely to participate in sport.

slide21

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of siblings

The socialisation process towards physical activity and the opportunity to engage in physical activity seems to be much stronger when children have siblings.

This is probably due to the opportunities ‘having someone to play with’ provides.

Having at least one other person (of similar age) to actively play with will ensure that from a young age basic movement skills are being developed and this may see young people develop a more positive attitude towards their own physical abilities.

slide22

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of siblings (cont.)

  • While having someone to be physically active with can help to develop positive attitudes towards physical activity, it can also hinder opportunities in some instances.
  • In some cases younger siblings may be guided towards participating in the physical activity being undertaken by older siblings.
  • This may occur due to a variety of factors, including convenience and financial reasons, but this will restrict the opportunity for the individual to engage in a variety of physical activities.
slide23

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity –

the role of coaches and teachers

Aside from family members, studies have reported that teachers and coaches play an influential role in generating interest in sport and physical activities.

Not only do coaches and teachers model attitudes and behaviours, but their interactions will also guide the self-concept of the individuals within their teams and classrooms.

In their role, good teachers and coaches offer positive reinforcement to their students/players and provide the necessary skills to develop the individual’s athletic abilities and build self confidence.

slide24

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity –

the role of coaches and teachers (cont.)

The negative attitudes of a coach will quickly be taken on board by the players as they understand that the coach represents the ‘expert’ in sporting performance and attitudes – this is the coach’s job.

For this reason also negative comments by a coach as an ‘expert’ about sporting performance or ability are usually very effective at reducing a player’s self-concept about their own sporting ability.

slide25

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of friends and peers

As children get older peer groups and friends begin to have a greater influence over attitudes and behaviour than the family.

Adolescents compare their own physical competence against their peers; to make judgments about how they ‘measure up’ – this comparison is used to develop an individual’s ‘sporting self-concept’.

Peers also judge the individual and in order for some children to gain acceptance into a group they must be competent in the areas that are valued by the group.

slide26

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of friends and peers

(cont.)

For many Australian teen groups, particularly males, acceptance into a peer group can be based on competence in the sporting arena.

For many, peer acceptance is more important than the need to participate in physical activity. An individual may choose not to participate in any physical activity as they fear the ridicule of the peer group should they try and fail.

slide27

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of friends and peers

(cont.)

Individuals that venture outside the stereotypes of male and female activities or what is defined as masculine and feminine by their peer group, risk being excluded or ridiculed. As a result individuals may limit their own opportunities in order to ‘fit in’ with peer expectations.

slide28

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of the media

To a large degree the media, and the beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours it displays is shaping the individual’s persona in the same way as parents.

Through the socialisation process an individual would learn to value those physical activities that are most commonly seen on television, believing these activities are of most cultural significance to Australians.

slide29

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of the media

  • Activities with no media exposure may be disregarded by the individual as being culturally insignificant and therefore not worthy for their attention.
slide30

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of the media (cont.)

  • The media also tend to promote individual sporting ‘personalities’. They present our sportspeople as ‘role-models’ for society, in particular our young.
  • This assists the socialisation process as young individuals look to replicate the values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours of our sporting stars in order to replicate their success.
slide31

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of the media (cont.)

  • Poor role-models presented through the media can create negative attitudes and stereotypes about sport, physical activities and sportspeople and this can limit opportunities for the individual.
slide32

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of the spectator

  • Many people with a positive attitude towards physical activity and a life-long interest in sport recall their days as a youngster running around at the local field while their mum or dad played, or attending their first big stadium event.
  • As children engage in competitive sport they tend to watch the older divisions or adult competitions, many finding their own local heroes in the same way they admire the elite performers on television.
slide33

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of the spectator (cont.)

  • In this sense, the importance of being a spectator in developing positive attitudes towards physical activity cannot be underrated.
  • These types of experiences are only useful in developing a positive attitude towards physical activity if the experience is seen as enjoyable.
slide34

Socialisation and opportunities in physical activity – the role of the spectator (cont.)

  • Many large stadiums and clubs now understand the importance of this type of experience, claiming that they are ‘family friendly’ in an effort to encourage parents to get their children involved with the sport from a young age.
slide35

Homework

  • In a 300-word response, outline the most predominant factors of the interpersonal level that have contributed to your participation in basketball.
slide36

TEXTBOOK ANSWER

    • Make a series of evaluative statements that highlight how each of your interpersonal factors has influenced and contributed to your participation in basketball. These factors could be directly or indirectly related to the skills and techniques used in basketball, your psychological mindset or to your general participation, views, beliefs and attitude to basketball.