The Heritage of Physical Education, Sport, and Fitness in the United States. Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Daryl Siedentop Chapter 2
Discussion Questions What do the pictures and discussions of “gymnastics” classes tell you about the early models of Physical Education?
Discussion Questions Why do you think that sport had such a difficult time becoming part of Physical Education during the “Gymnastics” era?
Discussion Questions How did you react to the stories of early abuses in collegiate sport? Were they worse than abuses today?
Discussion Questions What type of philosophy would you say supported the Physical Education program that you experienced in middle or high school?
Discussion Questions How did the popular view of fitness change during the time periods examined in this chapter?
Discussion Questions What were the significant events between 1900 and World War I that influenced Physical Education?
Discussion Questions How did the Great Depression affect the development of sport and Physical Education?
Discussion Questions How did WW II change our views of fitness, sport and Physical Education?
Discussion Questions What factors seem to make fitness more or less important among the American public?
Discussion Questions How has the Physical Education curriculum changed over the last 100 years?
Discussion Questions What factors have made collegiate and professional sport so popular?
Greece (500 – 300 BCE) Roman Empire (300 BCE – 476 CE) Europe UNITED STATES
The Greek influence • Male dominated society with only men having access to education. • Physical prowess was much sought after. • Games were key part of Greek life. • Physical training and sport also prepared military for defense against outside intruders. • Sparta (a military dominated city-state), exemplified the use of stringent selection of children for subsequent physical training.
The Roman influence • Its military training was critical to conquering other civilizations. • Obedience, discipline, & physical prowess were key goals of military training. • Its sporting events mirrored what we see today: Entertainment, large venues, betting. • Women were less marginalized. • The empire’s demise also lessened the perceived importance of Sport and fitness .
The Birth of a Profession - 1885 • William G. Anderson noted the lack of support (i.e., preparation programs literature) for “gymnastics teachers.” • Organized the first ever professional meeting, that spawned the Assoc. for the Advancement of Physical Education. • The empire’s demise also lessened the perceived importance of Sport and fitness .
The pre-1885 Sport & fitness scene Some sample marquee developments: (see also Box 2.1) • 1820 - First competitive Football game. • 1825 - First Physical Education teacher: C. Beck • 1837 - Catherine Beecher > Western Female Inst. • 1839 - First teacher training program. • 1848 - “Turnverein” club (German) formed. • 1851 - First YMCA in America. • 1859 - First intercollegiate Baseball game
The pre-1885 Sport & fitness Context • A young and conservative nation. • Strong Puritan values prohibiting play & exercise. • 1879 - Dudley Sargent, Assist. Prof. @ Harvard. • Mid 1800s: Exercise & fitness become valued & commonly accepted . . . Yet Sport emerges later! • Sport played mostly in Colleges – Student driven.
Context for an emerging Profession • Declining opposition to sport & exercise. • Large-scale immigration to the new world. • Industrialization. • Urbanization. • Transportation and communication. • Education – Free universal education for ALL. • Intellectual climate (e.g., Darwin, Freud, Marx).
Battle of the “Systems” • Multiple approaches to formal Gymnastics hailed from Europe (e.g., Germany & Sweden). • European climate: Nationalism & military preparedness. • “Faculty Psychology”: Perceived cognitive benefits of exercise. • 1889: Boston Conference >> Focus: Purposes of Physical Education and how to meet these.
Emergence of Organized Sport (late 1800’s) • Post-Civil War period: Sport games gradually become standardized (i.e., institutionalized) . . . They “come of age.” • Two-way influence between European & USA in the emergence of different sports. • Women played key role in Sport’s emergence in the USA (e.g., Basketball and Volleyball). • 1896: First Modern Olympic Games: P. de Coubertin proposes Olympism philosophy.
Sport on College Campuses • Rapid rise in men’s college sport (fr. 1850 to 1900). • Initially, mostly student driven (despite frequent opposition from faculty and adm.) • As sport became more central, abuses increased which made faculty support and oversight necessary. • 1896: First Modern Olympic Games: P. de Coubertin proposes Olympism philosophy.
Roots of abuse in College Sport • “Win at all cost” mentality • Absence of any sense of honor, fair play, and respect for rules. • Abuse occurred relative to eligibility and athlete treatment. • Examples: Playing for multiple colleges, getting paid to play. NEEDED . . . FACULTY OVERSIGHT
Faculty oversight of College Sport • Emergence of Athletic Conferences (e.g., Western Conference). • Increased institutional control over college sport. • Rules were made for eligibility, transfer of students, hiring and retaining coaches, etc. • Women’s college sport was overseen from the start, thus, experiencing fewer abuses (e.g., Blanche Trilling forms Athl. Conf. of American College Women).
The New Physical Education • 1890s: Physical Education recognized as curricular field for schools. • Thomas Wood argues Physical Education’s role toward complete education. • New agenda heavily promoted by: C. Hetherington T. Wood R. Cassidy L. Gulick
Physical Education . . .The Profession (1900 – 1920) • Embrace of other movements: Dance, Playgrounds, Camping, College Intramurals, & Recreation • Emergence of a Sport culture. • Physical Education is associated w. Education rather than Medicine. • 1904: American Academy of Physical Education.
Physical Education: The Golden Age (Post-World War I) • An emerging middle class, USA becomes an international power, a strong economy. • Interest in Sport grows rapidly (Radio and transportation aid in its spread). • Continued discrimination against African- Americans results in formation of separate leagues.
Physical Education: The Golden Age (Post-World War I) Which is it? . . . “OF the Physical” “THROUGH the Physical” (represents the “New Physical Education”) C.H. McCloy J.F. Williams Development of the body for health & skill Contribute to mental, social, and emotional development
Physical Education: The Golden Age (Post-World War I) (cont’d.) Second-generation leaders (“through the Physical”) Jesse Fearing Williams (Teachers College) Jay B. Nash (NYU) VS. Charles H. McCloy The ”OF” vs. “THROUGH” continues even today.
The Science of Physical Education… Beginnings (1920’s) 1924: The first doctoral programs are established. 1930: Research Quarterly’s first issue published Increased focus on Research is essential to ensuring legitimacy in Universities & Colleges.
Access and Equity . . . Not such a Golden Age REMEMBER: Women not allowed to vote . . . Pioneer women in Physical Education: • Delphine Hanna • Ethel Perrin • Jessie Bancroft • Amy Morris Homans • Elizabeth Burchenal • Blanche Trilling
Access and Equity . . . Not such a Golden Age REMEMBER: African-Americans lack full constitutional rights . . . Colleges that accepted black students: • Springfield College • Oberlin College • Sargent School for Women
Consolidation & Specialization (1930 – present) Cultural & Global Context (1930 – 1940): 1929 - Wall Street collapse w. the Great Depression 2. Changes in economic and social systems: 1935-Social Security Act 1935-Wagner Act Work Progress Administration (WPA) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)) National Youth Administration (NYA)
Consolidation & Specialization (1930 – present) Cultural & Global Context (1930 – 1940): (cont’d.) Effects of World War I, Russian Revolution, and the Great Depression contribute to rise of Germany’s and Italy’s quest for expansion and influence . . . World War II (1939-1945). Automobile, radio (and now TV) also influence the evolution of Sport, Fitness and Physical Education.
Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education - The Depression Years • Significant cutbacks in funding for Sport. • Spectatorship drops, while participation increases. (Softball) • Participation more democratized. • Federal & private programs boost participation (i.e., building of facilities and programs targeting youth – Little League Baseball).
Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education - The Depression Years • APEA’s membership actually increases throughout Depression. • NEA institutes Physical Education Teacher Education program evaluation. • AAHPE becomes department in NEA. • 1938: The Physical Education Curriculum (3-6 week block plan format).
Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education - World War II Years • WW II shifts focus back to Physical Fitness, including in school Physical Education programs. • War Training camps included extensive sport, fitness and recreation facilities and programs. • War Years precipitated the research specialization in Physical Education that would explode in the 1960s as the Kinesiology discipline movement. • Emergence of Adapted Physical Education.
Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education - Post-World War II Years • Cultural & societal shifts: > Birth of “suburbs” > Higher education enrollment soars > The Baby Boom • Expansion of Sport through the growth of spectator sports: > Growth in the number of teams in prof. sport. > Golf becomes a sport for the general public. > Olympics return in 1948 in London > Growth in Collegiate Sports, w. increased media coverage .
Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education - Post-World War II Years (cont’d.) • School Physical Education in the post- war years: > Sports and games become more dominant. > Emergence of “lifetime sports” in the curriculum. > BUT . . . . • 1954: > JOPER: Minimum Muscular Fitness Tests in School Children” (Kraus & Hirschland, 1954). > President’s Council on Youth Fitness formed (1958). > Physical fitness focus renewed in school programs.
Mid 1950’s and on • More social and cultural shifts: > Generational clashes in the 50’s and 60’s. > 1954 - “Brown v. Board of Education”. > 1956 - Civil Rights movement – Rosa Parks. > 1957 - Sputnik launch in USSR. Influence on Sport, Fitness and Physical Education?
Mid 1950’s and on • More social and cultural shifts: > 1962 - The Silent Spring (Carlson) (Adv. Educ.) > 1965 - Consumer movement – Ralph Nader. > 1972 - Title IX: Equal access to sport for women. > 1975 – PL 94-142 (rights of people w. disabilities). Influence on Sport, Fitness and Physical Education?
Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education from the mid 1950’s and on • Explosion of Women’s sport. • Emergence of outdoor / wilderness sports. • Racial integration in sports at all levels. • Youth sports expand in both number of sports and participants.
Fitness Renaissance and the Aerobics Era • Fitness becomes “fashionable” in the 60’s and 70’s . . . The thing to do . • Private sector grabs on to it. • Kenneth Cooper publishes “Aerobics” and forms the Cooper Aerobics Institute (www.cooperinst.org) • Increasing scientific support for “Adopt & value a physically active lifestyle” across entire population.
Physical Education since the 1950’s • Lifetime sports gain place in school programs. • Cooperative games emerged as a countermovement against the strong push for competition (Sputnik) • “Discipline of Physical Education” > Knowing vs. doing.
Physical Education since the 1950’s (cont’d.) • New philosophies and approaches emerge: > Adventure Education. > Movement Education (fr. England). > Social & Personal Responsibility Model (Hellison, 1984). > Sport Education (Siedentop, Hastie & van der Mars, 2004) > Teaching Games for Understanding (Almond, Bunker & Thorpe, 1983). • Title IX . . . Opportunities and challenges: > More equal access for both boys and girls. > Having to share budgets and facilities.
Academic Discipline Movement “ I suggest that there is an increasing need for the organization and study of the academic discipline herein called physical education.” (Henry, 1964, p. 32) • Title IX . . . Opportunities and challenges: > More equal access for both boys and girls. > Having to share budgets and facilities.
The “Academic Discipline” Movement • The birth of Physical Education as an “academic discipline” . . . to ensure its legitimacy in Universities and Colleges. • A redefinition of the field away from the applied professional enterprise. • Emergence initially of Exercise Physiology: > American College of Sports Medicine formed in 1954.
The “Academic Discipline” Movement (cont’d.) • Other sub-disciplines emerge: > Biomechanics. > Motor Learning. > Sport Psychology. > Sport Sociology. > Sport History. > Sport Philosophy. • Each form their own organizations, and start publishing their own scientific journals. The field of Physical Education splinters
The “Academic Discipline” Movement (cont’d.) • AAHPERD adjusts both its name and structure. • The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) creates “Academies” that resemble the academic-discipline movement to guard against the splintering (See Box 2.5).
The “Academic Discipline” Movement (cont’d.) • Strong influence on the Physical Education curriculum in Colleges and Universities: > Specialized Graduate programs emerge. > Knowledge gained via research becomes prominent in u-grad teacher preparation courses (i.e., courses in Ex. Phys.; Motor Learning; Sport Psych.; Biomechanics, etc.).