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Chapter 1 The History of Sport Management Introduction Roots of Sport Management Structures Management structures include clubs, leagues, professional tournaments Primary theme of chapter: Evolution due to broad social changes and/or to address specific issues Secondary themes:

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chapter 1 the history of sport management
Chapter 1

The History of Sport Management


Roots of Sport Management Structures

  • Management structures include clubs, leagues, professional tournaments
  • Primary theme of chapter:
    • Evolution due to broad social changes and/or to address specific issues
  • Secondary themes:
    • Honest play and inclusion
the club system
The Club System
  • England:
    • Birthplace of modern sport & sport management
  • 18th century:
    • Development of sports clubs with limited membership
  • 19th century:
    • Continued club evolution with standardizing of rules, settling disputes, and organizing schedules
thoroughbred racing
Thoroughbred Racing
  • Races drew broad and diverse audience
    • no admission charged.
  • Local club system initially
    • racing existed for entertainment only, not financial gain
  • 1830s:
    • Rail system allowed horses to compete nationally
  • Desire of owners to breed & train fast horses, and the increasing complexity of gambling led to more complex club system
the jockey club
The Jockey Club
  • Settled disputes, established rules, determined eligibility, designated officials, regulated breeding, & punished unscrupulous participants
  • Organized, sponsored, and promoted local events
  • Met need for a strong national governing body to establish rules, standards, and a mechanism for resolving disputes
  • Served as model for wider sport management practices in England
the modern olympic games
The Modern Olympic Games
  • International club event, with little resemblance to ancient Olympic Games
  • First Modern Olympics in 1896, but the revival can be traced back to at least 1850 with club-based Olympic festivals in England
  • Founder Pierre de Coubertin, inspired by English revivals & Victorian notions of character building and peace movements through sport, introduced concept of amateur Olympic Games every 4 years
present day club structure
Present-Day Club Structure
  • Commitment to serve broad membership & managing elite sports enterprise
  • Clubs organize youth teams & academies, adult recreational leagues, and social events for members
  • Large built-in memberships & loyal fan bases
  • Characterized by nonprofit status and exclusive membership:
    • Augusta and male-only membership
  • Change from European club system to U.S. league system
american structures
American Structures
  • European club system did not suit the U.S.
    • Lack of aristocratic tradition & prohibition against gambling
  • Evolution of harness racing
    • Sport of the common person
  • Better spectator sport
    • Sprint vs. four-mile race; horses could compete daily, large field of competitors
  • Managed by track owners & race promoters:
    • More willing to create spectator interest for sport
  • Issues of race fixing, management lacking credibility
  • Baseball was first to adopt league system
  • Cincinnati Red Stockings: First pro team
  • Some teams in the league paid and some not—created controversy
  • 1871: Creation of National Association of Professional Baseball Players
  • Importance of “breakeven” financial interests of individual clubs

© Jones and Bartlett Publishers

william hulbert
William Hulbert
  • Czar of baseball
  • 1876 - Took over management of National League of Professional Baseball Players
  • Believed stability only achieved if teams run like businesses
  • Teams should compete against each other & not collude
    • Understood that without strict rules forcing honest competition, collusion would occur
william hulbert11
William Hulbert

Also believed:

  • Owners must take some financial risk:
    • Abandoning seasons early to prevent losses in short term eroded long-term faith of public
  • Owners must field competitive teams to be profitable
  • Integrity of baseball was suspect as long as the players’ honesty was questionable:
    • Gambling prohibited and ticket prices raised
success of league
Success of League
  • Excitement of pennant race
  • Favorable media attention
  • Appealed to fans’ loyalty and pride in their cities
  • Early form of revenue sharing
  • Rules that distributed talent
leagues today
Leagues Today
  • Successful contemporary commercial sports leagues depend on consolidated league play with strong centralized control and regulation
  • Audience has changed:
    • Public’s perception of locus of honest effort resides more with the players than with ownership structure
  • Single-entity structures: MLS, MLL, AFL
professional sports tournaments
Professional Sports Tournaments

Professional Golf

  • Early golf professionals were instructors & caddies
  • Professional leagues failed to capture public interest or attract golf professionals
  • Attempt to generate gate revenues at tournaments failed
  • Stability of tournaments achieved when prize money was put up by companies & corporate sponsors

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corcoran s tournaments
Corcoran’s Tournaments
  • Fred Corcoran = Architect of golf tournament
  • Golf tournament was medium through which celebrity, politician, manufacturer, charity, town, or product gained exposure
  • Used athletes & golf tournaments to sell advertising space to the public
  • Bing Crosby & Bob Hope created charity golf tournaments in pro-am format for WWII fundraising
corcoran s tournaments continue after war ends
Corcoran’s Tournaments Continue After War Ends
  • Good business = tax deductions
  • Charities encourage volunteers and good publicity for tournaments
  • Golf equipment manufacturers paid him to create golfer ass’n and arrange tournaments using prize money as player payments to reduce cost of hiring player representatives
  • 1950s press changes policy and begins naming tournament sponsor not location = free publicity
tournaments today
Tournaments Today
  • Golf tournaments have evolved into corporate celebration of itself and products
  • PGA Tour viewed as private group
    • set rules of eligibility
  • Associations not as exclusive as private clubs (Casey Martin)
  • Trend moving away from nonprofit private associations and toward marketing agencies and/or broadcast media
importance of women
Importance of Women
  • Heraea Games:
    • The Sixteen Women
  • Intercollegiate Sport:
    • Christine Grant & Judy Sweet
  • National Intramural Association (NIRSA):
    • Anette Akins, Mary Daniels, Juliette Moore
importance of women in sport management
Importance of Women in Sport Management
  • Sport Management Industry:
    • Effa Manley of Newark Eagles (Negro League)
    • Billie Jean King (WTT, WSF)
    • Lesa France Kennedy (NASCAR)
    • Stephanie Tolleson (IMG)
    • Dawn Hudson (PepsiCo)
academic field
Academic Field
  • Continuing growth of sport industry and its importance to numerous sponsors and institutions created demand for the systematic study of sport management practices
    • 1957: Walter O’Malley
    • 1966: James Mason; first Master’s program at Ohio
    • 1971: University of Massachusetts
academic field21
Academic Field
  • Current status
    • Over 210 programs nationwide
    • North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM)
    • Program evaluation
    • Globalization
      • Sport Management Degree Programs throughout Europe
      • SMAANZ
      • EASM