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Chapter 1 The History of Sport Management

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  1. Chapter 1 The History of Sport Management

  2. Introduction Roots of Sport Management Structures • Management structures include clubs, leagues, professional tournaments • Primary theme of chapter: • Evolution due to broad social changes and/or to address specific issues • Secondary themes: • Honest play and inclusion

  3. The Club System • England: • Birthplace of modern sport & sport management • 18th century: • Development of sports clubs with limited membership • 19th century: • Continued club evolution with standardizing of rules, settling disputes, and organizing schedules

  4. Thoroughbred Racing • Races drew broad and diverse audience • no admission charged. • Local club system initially • racing existed for entertainment only, not financial gain • 1830s: • Rail system allowed horses to compete nationally • Desire of owners to breed & train fast horses, and the increasing complexity of gambling led to more complex club system

  5. The Jockey Club • Settled disputes, established rules, determined eligibility, designated officials, regulated breeding, & punished unscrupulous participants • Organized, sponsored, and promoted local events • Met need for a strong national governing body to establish rules, standards, and a mechanism for resolving disputes • Served as model for wider sport management practices in England

  6. The Modern Olympic Games • International club event, with little resemblance to ancient Olympic Games • First Modern Olympics in 1896, but the revival can be traced back to at least 1850 with club-based Olympic festivals in England • Founder Pierre de Coubertin, inspired by English revivals & Victorian notions of character building and peace movements through sport, introduced concept of amateur Olympic Games every 4 years

  7. Present-Day Club Structure • Commitment to serve broad membership & managing elite sports enterprise • Clubs organize youth teams & academies, adult recreational leagues, and social events for members • Large built-in memberships & loyal fan bases • Characterized by nonprofit status and exclusive membership: • Augusta and male-only membership • Change from European club system to U.S. league system

  8. American Structures • European club system did not suit the U.S. • Lack of aristocratic tradition & prohibition against gambling • Evolution of harness racing • Sport of the common person • Better spectator sport • Sprint vs. four-mile race; horses could compete daily, large field of competitors • Managed by track owners & race promoters: • More willing to create spectator interest for sport • Issues of race fixing, management lacking credibility

  9. Leagues • Baseball was first to adopt league system • Cincinnati Red Stockings: First pro team • Some teams in the league paid and some not—created controversy • 1871: Creation of National Association of Professional Baseball Players • Importance of “breakeven” financial interests of individual clubs © Jones and Bartlett Publishers

  10. William Hulbert • Czar of baseball • 1876 - Took over management of National League of Professional Baseball Players • Believed stability only achieved if teams run like businesses • Teams should compete against each other & not collude • Understood that without strict rules forcing honest competition, collusion would occur

  11. William Hulbert Also believed: • Owners must take some financial risk: • Abandoning seasons early to prevent losses in short term eroded long-term faith of public • Owners must field competitive teams to be profitable • Integrity of baseball was suspect as long as the players’ honesty was questionable: • Gambling prohibited and ticket prices raised

  12. Success of League • Excitement of pennant race • Favorable media attention • Appealed to fans’ loyalty and pride in their cities • Early form of revenue sharing • Rules that distributed talent

  13. Leagues Today • Successful contemporary commercial sports leagues depend on consolidated league play with strong centralized control and regulation • Audience has changed: • Public’s perception of locus of honest effort resides more with the players than with ownership structure • Single-entity structures: MLS, MLL, AFL

  14. Professional Sports Tournaments Professional Golf • Early golf professionals were instructors & caddies • Professional leagues failed to capture public interest or attract golf professionals • Attempt to generate gate revenues at tournaments failed • Stability of tournaments achieved when prize money was put up by companies & corporate sponsors © LiquidLibrary

  15. Corcoran’s Tournaments • Fred Corcoran = Architect of golf tournament • Golf tournament was medium through which celebrity, politician, manufacturer, charity, town, or product gained exposure • Used athletes & golf tournaments to sell advertising space to the public • Bing Crosby & Bob Hope created charity golf tournaments in pro-am format for WWII fundraising

  16. Corcoran’s Tournaments Continue After War Ends • Good business = tax deductions • Charities encourage volunteers and good publicity for tournaments • Golf equipment manufacturers paid him to create golfer ass’n and arrange tournaments using prize money as player payments to reduce cost of hiring player representatives • 1950s press changes policy and begins naming tournament sponsor not location = free publicity

  17. Tournaments Today • Golf tournaments have evolved into corporate celebration of itself and products • PGA Tour viewed as private group • set rules of eligibility • Associations not as exclusive as private clubs (Casey Martin) • Trend moving away from nonprofit private associations and toward marketing agencies and/or broadcast media

  18. Importance of Women • Heraea Games: • The Sixteen Women • Intercollegiate Sport: • Christine Grant & Judy Sweet • National Intramural Association (NIRSA): • Anette Akins, Mary Daniels, Juliette Moore

  19. Importance of Women in Sport Management • Sport Management Industry: • Effa Manley of Newark Eagles (Negro League) • Billie Jean King (WTT, WSF) • Lesa France Kennedy (NASCAR) • Stephanie Tolleson (IMG) • Dawn Hudson (PepsiCo)

  20. Academic Field • Continuing growth of sport industry and its importance to numerous sponsors and institutions created demand for the systematic study of sport management practices • 1957: Walter O’Malley • 1966: James Mason; first Master’s program at Ohio • 1971: University of Massachusetts

  21. Academic Field • Current status • Over 210 programs nationwide • North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) • Program evaluation • Globalization • Sport Management Degree Programs throughout Europe • SMAANZ • EASM