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Unit One Early Colonization and Development of the United States.
Who inhabited it first? • Outside of Native Americans there had been little to no exploration of the United States. • Spain (1) and France (2) had dominated the early exploration, but Great Britain (3) came on strong with developments in Naval technology. • The French inhabited the first colony in Quebec. The French primarily used the colony for fur trading. The colony was settled along the St. Lawrence River which gave it access to trade.
The First English Colonies…. • New colony was to benefit England (mercantilism) 1. Place to send petty criminals 2. Allow England to build overseas bases (protection and trade) 3. Provide a market for English manufactured goods and a place to get raw materials (profit) 4. Plant the Protestant faith in the Americas (control Catholicism) • 5. Religious freedom
ROANOKE, Virginia…… • Founded by Sir Walter Raleigh Claimed land between the 34th and 45th parallels for England (North Carolina to Maine) • Named region Virginia (for England's virgin queen) • 1585 - 1st colony began at Roanoke Island • Roanoke and Croatoan Indians lived nearby and provided help at 1st • Colonist treated Indians with disrespect (conflicts ended in violence) • Indians stopped helping and the Colonists almost starved to death • Left after a year
ROANOKE FAILS – TRY AGAIN…. • John White leads a 2nd attempt, English artist convinces Raleigh to back him • People carry their families and invest own money • White had to return home for supplies 1. His granddaughter "Virginia Dare" was the 1st English child born in America • Had to wait a couple of years to return because of the Spanish Armada • Everyone had disappeared when he returned 1. Only two signs CRO carved on a tree and the word CROATOAN on a door • No one knows what happened to the colonists • Called the “Lost Colony”
Jamestown 1607 • Jamestown is the first successful English colony. • It was created by a joint stock company called the Virginia Company. This was a joint-stock company which meant it was owned by investors. • Early reasons for the colony were to make money for both settlers and Virginia Company.
Jamestown Cont. • Jamestown faced many problems at the beginning. • Not used to hard work. • Wanted to search for gold, not farm. • The colony was in a swampy area(lots of disease). • Due to the lack of hard work and new environment, Jamestown went through a period of famine and starvation. This period is known as the Starving Time
English and Native American Relations • The English came from a very extensive governing society. • The Native Americans had a tribal confederation(loose alliance) that was led by a Chief (colonists looked down on Natives) • Chief Powhatan is the leader of the Native Americans during the English settlement. • At first conflict is going to break out, but the English have better weapon technology and force the Natives into a peace treaty.
English/Native Relations Cont. • The British settlers improve relations, and without the Natives they would not have survived the first winter. • The British still looked down on the Natives, and saw them as unequal. • In 1608, Captain John Smith took control of the colonies. John Smith had been saved by Pocahontas, and Powhatan used this to show he wanted peace with the colonists. • By 1610 the colony was in bad shape until Lord De La Warr arrived and alleviated the suffering. • By 1625 the original 8,000 was down to 1,200.
The role of Pocahontas • The colonists had began to raid Native food supplies and relations began to collapse. • The First Anglo-Powhatan War ended in 1614 with a peace settlement and the marriage of John Rolfe to Pocahontas. • Relations would again become tense with the Second Anglo-Powhatan War(1644-1646), and left John Rolfe dead.
Bacon’s Rebellion • Due to tensions with Native Americans, farmers who lived on the Western side of the colony face harsh relations with the Natives. • The farmers asked for protection from the Royal Governor, but received none. • Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy Virginia farmer, gathered a group of farmers, servants, and slaves and attacked the Natives. The Royal Governor condemned his actions.
Bacon’s Rebellion • Once condemned, Bacon gathered his followers and they began an attack on Jamestown itself. They burned the colony to the ground. • The rebellion stopped when Bacon died suddenly from illness. • His uprising showed that colonists expected a government that served more than just a wealthy few and that they were unhappy with shortages of land
Role of Tobacco • When John Rolfe came to the colonies he helped to restructure the agricultural economy with the founding of one product: Tobacco (Brown Gold). • With a large cash crop this helped change the economic structure of the colonies. • This would eventually be one of the major things that helps save the colony.
Government and Structure in Jamestown • In order to come to the colony you must be able to do one of two things: 1)Pay your own way over. 2)Work off what you owe when you get here. • Indentured Servants were people who could not afford the trip over, but were able to work it off once they got there (after 7 years, earned freedom and became small landowners). • Because the colony was so far from Great Britain they adopted a concept called Salutary Neglect. This meant the colonists could govern themselves outside of a few restrictions.
Government and Structure Cont. • The first official legislature was known as the House of Burgesses. • The legislature was directly elected by the people. • Only white male property owners were allowed to vote, and mainly wealthy white males were elected. • This helped lay a foundation for representative government ideas.
King James I Removes Charter • King James I removed the charter (written document of rights) in Jamestown(1624), however the House of Burgesses still met just not as an official governing body. • In 1639 the colonial governor re-established the House of Burgesses.
The Basics of a Representative Government • In this style of government, the people must elect the officials to represent them. • During this time period rich white males were the primary officials elected. • The House of Burgesses is much like our House of Representatives and Senate today. We elect Reps. and Senators to represent us in Government.
Slavery in the Colonies • Slavery was a slow concept that started in the colonies. • With less reliance on indentured servants, there was a major need for cheap/free labor. • Indentured servants competed for land • The English saw Africa as its major source for slaves. In 1619 the first African is seen in the Jamestown colony.
Slavery cont. • Many Africans did not come over as slaves, but as indentured servants. Some Africans even owned land and slaves of their own. • With the mass production of crops like tobacco slaves became very important, and helped establish the plantation system. • The plantation system is based on large scale farms that mass produce for one reason: to make a profit.
Pictogram • Create a “pictogram” for Jamestown including the following topics: (use pictures to describe the topics, no words) • Reasons for settling • Religion • Social structure • Government • Economy • Problems • Relations with natives
New England Development • Was settled out of religious dissent (disagreement with the Anglican Church) • In 1620 some 102 individuals, including about fifty Pilgrims seeking religious freedom, set sail from England to America. • Some of the Pilgrims were Separatists, and wanted to start their own church outside of the Anglican church. • This group originally intended to land in Virginia, but due to a storm ended up in Plymouth near Cape Cod Bay.
Mayflower Compact • Forty-one men signed the Mayflower Compact. This document pledged loyalty to King James I of England and established their own government. • It set up an elected legislature that was put in place for the people, by the people. They wanted to be ruled by a localgovernment, not England. • This group also elected the first two governors, John Carver and William Bradford.
Town Meetings • In the Plymouth colony in order to make decisions they held Town Meetings. • In these town meetings, all citizens could come and voice their opinions. • This was a form of representative government. • However, church leaders often enforced the will of God over the will of the people.
Massachusetts Bay Colony • Another religious group that wanted freedom were the Puritans (believed in pure biblical teaching). They formed a joint-stock co. • The Massachusetts Bay Company had been granted a charter by King Charles I to settle north of the Plymouth colony. • The Plymouth Colony had been absorbed into this new colony. • John Winthrop, the leader of the company, saw this as an opportunity to create a new “puritan society”.
Government in Massachusetts Colony • Originally in order to participate in govt., known as the General Court, you had to be a “freeman” (stockholder), white, and own land. • Religious values changed it - you now had to be a member of the church in order to participate in government. • When the number of officials in government became too large they developed a two house legislature that was much like Parliament in Great Britain. This body would make legislative decisions. • In 1684 the colony lost its charter because it broke the Navigation Acts (which restricted trade) set up by England.
Massachusetts Bay Colony(Royal) • 1691, King Charles I took over the colony and forced it to become a royal colony. • The crown established a new representative legislature and abolished the requirement that every member must be a member of the church.
Religious Dissent/Creation of new colonies • Because of the strict restrictions the Puritan church placed on people, many began to rebel. • Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson (Anne was kicked out) both left the Massachusetts colony because they disagreed with the teachings in the Puritan Church. Both play a key role in the development of Rhode Island.
Religious Dissent Cont. • Thomas Hooker also disagreed with the Puritan Church, and left Mass. in 1636 to found Connecticut. • He and his followers also established the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, which stated the government’s power came only from the “free consent of the people” and set limits on what the government could do. • Principals from this document would also find their way into the U.S. Constitution. • Lord Baltimore was granted a charter to create a colony for Catholics (Maryland). This showed the cultural diversity of the Mid-Atlantic colonies.
Half-Way Covenant • Puritans had little tolerance for other beliefs but agreed to this. • It granted half membership to children and grandchildren of members, regardless of any “conversion experience” (true faith). • This person became a member only if they were baptized, and they did not receive certain privileges (i.e. voting).
Effect of Half-Way Covenant • Many religious officials hoped this would draw in the younger groups to the colony. • They feared the younger groups would enjoy outside influences and continue secular ways. • Some strict Puritans saw the Half-Way Covenant as a sinful compromise, and as a disgrace to the church. • Many believed this led to the Salem Witch Trials.
Salem Witch Trials • In 1692 several young girls claim they have been possessed by the devil. • The girls accuse several townspeople of being witches. • Colonial authorities begin a “witch hunt”, and condemn many of these people to death.
Causes of the Salem Witch Trials • Although literacy was highly valued in Puritan society, generally only boys attended school. • Girls were trained for “womanly” duties at home. • Yale and Harvard: of the earliest colleges • Extreme religious faith • Stress from a growing population • Bad relations with natives • Few opportunities for women and girls to participate in Puritan society
King Philip’s War • In New England the relations between settlers and Natives was, at first, good. The Natives taught them to grow corn and other crops. • Eventually fights and skirmishes break out among the groups. • In 1675 a Native American leader known as “King Philip”, or Metacom united Native Americans in New England in an unsuccessfulattempt to drive out English settlers.
Result of King Philip’s War • King Philip killed almost 2000 colonists. • King Philip was cornered in a cave in Rhode Island, and was shot through the heart. • The major result of the war was that the English colonists gained firmer control over New England. • This sets up a scene for a major conflict in the future (French and Indian War).
EOCT Question • Which factor directly affected the settlement of New England in the 1600s? • Religious persecution in Great Britain • The opportunity to cultivate tobacco • Growing conflicts with southern farmers • The chance to participate in the slave trade
Characteristics • Were the most culturally diverse • Depended on small farming and commerce, shipping • Had large cities (New York, Philadelphia) • Slaves were fewer and worked in shops and cities as well as farms • Thrived in fur trade and had economic relationship w/ Natives like the Iroquois
“New Amsterdam” to “New York” • Originally settled by the Dutch “New Netherland” • Established a trading post along the Hudson River and named it “New Amsterdam” • It’s location allowed for much diversity of language and religion • King Charles II noticed the success of New Netherlands and declared the entire area under control of his brother, the Duke of York. It was immediately renamed New York.
Other Middle Colonies • Rhode Island – Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson, became haven for those who believed in separation of church and state • Connecticut – Thomas Hooker, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
William Penn • In 1681 William Penn secured a large track of land from King Charles II and founded Pennsylvania. • Penn was a Quaker, so this became a haven for Quakers. • Pennsylvania was an area that was considered to be very peaceful. Quakers practiced equality, pacifism, dealt fairly w/ Natives, religious tolerance.
Diversity • Social Order: • Upper class “aristocracy”– merchants • Middle – craftsmen, retailers, businessmen • Lower – sailors, unskilled workers, artisans • Other religious groups were attracted to Pennsylvania (Lutherans, Presbyterians, Mennonites)
Southern Colonies… • The southern colonies were developed for economic reasons (except Maryland). Large plantations were built there and created a divide in southern society between gentry and poorer class. They were worked by cheap labor. These plantations turned out turpentine, indigo, and tobacco.
GEORGIA………ON MY MIND • Last of the original 13 colonies was Georgia. • In 1733 the king gave land to a man named James Oglethrope. • The king planned this colony as a place to get rid of people in England he did not want. The colony was to protect the other colonies from the French and Spanish to the south and west. • The first settlement was Savannah. Georgia was named in honor of King George of England.
Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec “New France” • North of the New England Colonies lied Quebec. • The French founded this colony to set up a fur trade w/ Natives and it provided good military position. • While maintaining this colony the French also explored the Mississippi River and named this vast territory Louisiana after King Louis XIV. • Later the United States will gain control of this area through the Louisiana purchase.
Quebec’s Impact on English • With Quebec the French influenced colonists and Natives to embrace Catholicism and ally against the English. • Later, these two groups fight against the English colonist in the French and Indian War.