Chapter 10 Abnormal Psychology. Topics to Explore. Defining & Classifying Disorders Three Categories of Disorders Treatment of Mental Disorders. Part 1 Defining & Classifying Mental Disorders. What is Abnormal Psychology?.
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Abnormal Psychology: the scientific study of mental disorders and their treatment
Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of anxiety, depression, or emotional distress. But people we would consider definitely abnormal may not feel subjective discomfort.
Social Nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self-destructive behavior. But it doesn’t always. Is being a nonconformist always a disorder? 1984!
Statistical Abnormality: Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression. But having a numerically rare characteristic isn’t always a disorder (e.g., having an IQ of 180)
Situational Context: Social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which an action takes place
Is it normal to walk around strangers naked? If you are in a locker room and in the shower area, yes!
Cultural Relativity: Judgments are made relative to the values of one’s culture
Maladaptive Behavior: Behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment, and to meet everyday demands
Significant impairment in psychological functioning: Those with mental illness lose the ability to control thoughts, behaviors, or feelings adequately
Atypical behavior: behavior that is not typical of the majority of the population
DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Published by the American Psychiatric Association.
Provides a classification system of mental disorders.
Sexual & Gender Identity Disorders
Disorders First Diagnosed in Childhood
Organic Mental Disorders
Substance Related Disorders
Impulse Control DisordersSome DSM-IV Categories
Social Conditions: Poverty, homelessness, overcrowding, stressful living conditions
Family Factors: Parents who are immature, mentally ill, abusive, or criminal; poor child discipline; severe marital or relationship problems
Psychological Factors: Low intelligence, stress, learning disorders
Biological Factors: Genetic defects or inherited vulnerabilities; poor prenatal care, head injuries, exposure to toxins, chronic physical illness, or disability
Anxiety: Feelings of apprehension, dread, or uneasiness
Anxiety Disorder: a disorder in which excessive anxiety leads to personal distress and atypical, maladaptive, and irrational behavior
Specific Phobias: Irrational, persistent fears, anxiety, and avoidance that focus on specific objects, activities, or situations
People with phobias realize that their fears are unreasonable and excessive, but they cannot control them
See in class!
Social Phobia: Intense, irrational fear of being observed, evaluated, humiliated, or embarrassed by others (e.g., shyness, eating, or speaking in public)
Those with social phobia avoid social situations, such as eating, writing, or speaking in public.
Social phobias impair functioning at work, at school, and in personal relationships.
Estimate that 13% of all adults affected by social phobias at some time. Examples: Barbra Streisand, Woody Allen perhaps?
Panic Disorder: A chronic state of anxiety with brief moments of sudden, intense, unexpected panic (panic attack)
Panic Attack: Feels like one is having a heart attack, going to die, or is going insane. Symptoms include vertigo, chest pain, choking, fear of losing control
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Duration of at least six months of chronic, unrealistic, or excessive anxiety
Symptoms: sweating, racing heart, clammy hands, dizziness, upset stomach, rapid breathing, irritability, poor concentration.
More common in women than in men.
Mood Disorders: Major disturbances in emotion, such as depression or mania
Depressive Disorders: Sadness or despondency that are prolonged, exaggerated, or unreasonable
Bipolar Disorders: Involve both depression and mania or hypomania
Flat Affect: Lack of emotional responsiveness; face is frozen in blank expression
Disturbed Verbal Communication: Garbled and chaotic speech; word salad
Personality Disintegration: Uncoordinated thoughts, actions, and emotions
Schizophrenia: Psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, apathy, thinking abnormalities, and “split” between thoughts and emotions
Does NOTrefer to having split or multiple personalities
Disorganized Type: Incoherence, grossly disorganized behavior, bizarre thinking, and flat or inappropriate emotions
Catatonic Type: Marked by stupor, unresponsiveness, posturing, and mutism
Paranoid Type: Preoccupation with delusions; also involves hallucinations that are related to a single theme, especially grandeur or persecution
Undifferentiated Type: Any type of schizophrenia that does not have paranoid, catatonic, or disorganized features or symptoms
Psychological Trauma: Psychological injury or shock, often caused by violence, abuse, or neglect
Disturbed Family Environment: Stressful or unhealthy family relationships, communication patterns, and emotional atmosphere
Deviant Communication Patterns: Cause guilt, anxiety, anger, confusion, and turmoil
Stress-Vulnerability Hypothesis: Combination of environmental stress and inherited susceptibility cause schizophrenic disorders
Biochemical Abnormality: Disturbance in brain’s chemical systems or in the brain’s neurotransmitters
Dopamine: Neurotransmitter involved with emotions and muscle movement. Works in limbic system
Dopamine overactivity in brain may be related to schizophrenia
Biomedical therapies: medical treatment for mental disorders; includes drug therapy and medical procedures treating the brain
Pharmacotherapy: Use of drugs to alleviate emotional disturbance; three classes:
Antianxiety (Minor Tranquilizers): Produce relaxation or reduce anxiety (Valium, Lithium, Zanax)
Antidepressants: Elevate mood and combat depression (Elavil, Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft)
Antipsychotics (Major Tranquilizers): Tranquilize and also reduce hallucinations and delusions in larger dosages (Thorazine, Clozaril)
Psychotherapy: Any psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in personality, behavior, or adjustment;
Some types of psychotherapy:
Psychoanalysis: therapy based on Freud’s theory
Client-centered therapy: based on Humanism
Behavioral and Cognitive therapies
Analysis of Resistance: analysis of blockage in flow of ideas; topics the client resists thinking about or discussing. Resistances reveal particularly important unconscious conflicts
Analysis of Transference: analysis of tendency to transfer feelings to a therapist that match those the patient has for important people in his or her past. The patient might act like the therapist is a rejecting father, loving mother, etc.
Existential Therapy: An insight therapy that focuses on problems of existence, such as meaning, choice, and responsibility; emphasizes making difficult choices in life
Therapy focuses on death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness
Free Will: Human ability to make choices. You can choose to be the person you want to be
Confrontation: Clients are challenged to examine their values and choices
Aversion Therapy: Associate a strong aversion to an undesirable habit like smoking, overeating, drinking alcohol, or gambling
Flooding: client is exposed to feared object or situation.