APA Style Guidelines Getting Started
Physical Format • No title page necessary. • Black ink on white paper. • Non-descript font (Times Roman—12). • 1-inch margins all around (except for page #s). • Double-spaced throughout. • Fasten pages with a paper clip.
Heading, Title, and Page Number • Heading—top line, flush left (ds) • Your name • Professor’s name • Course title and number • Date
References Page • New Page • Double-spaced • Center References at the top. • Alphabetical Order--If no author, alphabetize by the title.
References • Indent all but the first line in each entry by one-half inch. • Italicize the titles of books and periodicals. • Go through your paper to make sure all sources are on the list
Works Cited—Authors • Ball, E. (2000). Slaves in the family. New York: Ballantine Books. • If an editor: Rasgon, N. L. (Ed.). (2006). The effects of estrogen on brain function. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. • Do not include titles of authors—e.g. PhD, Dr., Sir.
Works by the Same Author • Arrange according to date, earliest first: Jules, R. (2003). Internal memos and other classified documents. London: Hutchinson. Jules, R. (2004). Derelict Cabinet. London: Corgi-Transworld.
Works Cited—Two Authors • Hardt, M., & Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Works Cited—Journal Article • Kellogg, R. T. (2001). Competition for working memory among writing processes. American Journal of Psychology, 114, 175-192.
Works Cited—Electronic Sources • Online publication by known author: Carr, A. (2003, May 22). AAUW applauds Senate support of title IX resolution. Retrieved from http://www.aauw.org/about/newsroom /press_releases/030522.cfm
Online Publications • Newspaper: Erard, M. (2001, November 16). A colossal wreck. Austin Chronicle. Retrieved from http://www.austinchronicle.com
Online Publications • Article in an online magazine: McClure, L. (2003, February 18). The Salon interview: Molly Ivins. Salon. Retrieved from: http://www.salon.com
Review of Capitalization • Manuscript page header: • Just the Important Words • The Remains of the Day
Review of Capitalization • Book Edition • (ed.) • Person is an editor • (Ed.)
Punctuating Quotations • [. . .] – use within brackets to show omissions within a quote. • [ ] – use brackets around your comments or explanations in a quote. • ( ) – use parentheses outside the quote.
In-Text Citations • Author named in your text: “The influential sociologist Daniel Bell (1973) noted a shift in the United States to the ‘postindustrial society’” (p. 3). • Author not named in your text: “In 1997, the Gallup poll reported that 55% of adults think secondhand smoke is ‘very harmful’” (Saad, 1993, p. 4).
In-Text Citations • Work by a single author: (Bell, 1973, p. 3). • Work by two authors: (Suzuki & Irabu, 2002, p. 404). • Work by six or more authors: (Francisco et al., 2006, p. 17).
In-Text Citations • Work by an unknown author: (“Dealing the Peace Process,” 2003, p. 44). • Parts of an electronic source: (Robinson, 2007 ¶7). • Work quoted in another source: Saunders and Kellman’s study (as cited in Rice, 2006a)
Punctuating Block Quotes • In a rare circumstance your quote runs more than four lines. . . • Set it off beginning a new line. • Indent ten spaces from the left margin. • Type it double-spaced without quotation marks. • Place the page number after the final period.
Ending Quotes • What to do when the quote has ending punctuation such as “?” or “!” • “How can I describe my emotions?” wonders the doctor in Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein (42). • “You’ve got to be carefully taught,” wrote Oscar Hammerstein II about how racial prejudice is perpetuated.
Annotations • Provide a brief summary of the chapter, article, book, or website here. Use quotations sparingly. Use words such as claims, explains, or suggests to introduce the thesis of the article. For example, Dibattista claims that there are many sides to Chloe.
Annotations • In your second paragraph, assess the work and its value. Is it factual, unbiased, well documented? Is the source current? Then mention if you will be using the source in your research paper.
Reducing Bias in Language • Be more specific, not less - Age ranges rather than broad categories. - Men and women—rather than ‘mankind’ - Avoid the generic ‘he’ - Specific ethnic or race labeling • Mention differences only when relevant.
Be Sensitive to Labels • Respect people’s preferences. • Avoid labeling when possible Example: the depressed, LDs, the elderly • Use ‘people first’ language Example: people over the age of 65, people with learning disabilities.
Standards of Comparison • Be aware of hidden standards that compare the study group to an invisible (standard) group. Example: “culturally deprived” (by what standard?) • Unparallel nouns Example: man and wife—instead of husband and wife.
Standards of Comparison • Avoid abnormal/normal comparisons Example: Lesbians and the general public—instead, Lesbians and women identified as heterosexual. Example: People with disabilities and normal people—instead, People with disabilities and people without disabilities.